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Infant Devlopment

Chapter 1 Beliefs about Babies

stagewise Characterization of development as occurring in distinct phases with qualitative differences between stages
Continous Characterization of development as a gradual, smooth process of change
nurture Environmental and experiential factors influencing development
nature Biological factors influencing development.
Literary evidence Written information including parents diaries and letters, child during advice written by ministers and doctors, and children’s books
developmental domains specific areas of ability or experience, such as cognition, language, memory, relationships, or emotion
Epigenesis The interaction of genes with each other and with the organisms internal and External environment two produced developmental outcomes, such as new structures, behaviors, and abilities.
Qualitative archival evidence Official sources of written information and data including census data, tax records, and the legislative and a court records
Material culture Physical evidence such as toys, clothing, furniture, and works of art.
Infant mortality rate Number of deaths per 1000 live births, usually reported with reference to the age of one year.
What are the three major sources of information that are available and studying children? They are Literary evidence, quantitative archival evidence, and material cultural.
What are the three reasons to study infant development from birth to three years old One of the significant transformation that occurs in every developmental domain, To the impact of early experience on development and the availability of tools and information to guide our studies and three increased interest in did enter the disciplinar
Archival research Research that replaces the direct observation or assessment of research participants with examination of records or artifacts.
Assent Verbal agreement to participate in research obtained when participants are unable to give informed consent
Baby biography Observational records made by parents or other caregivers of an infant development.
Behavereal state Any of 10 distinct levels of arousal observed in newborn infants, including for a week state, three transition state between sleep and waking comment to sleep state and one transition sleep state.
Case study Also referred to as the clinical method this is an in-depth examination of a single individual
Cohort Are particular group or generation of participants such as infants born in the same year
Cohort effects No problem and cross-sectional research in which age differences may actually stem from generational, or cohort,
Conditional head turning A technique in which infants are taught to turn their head every time they hear protect up early or signal and only when they hear that signal
Cross sectional research A developmental design in which two or more age groups of participants are compared in terms of their behavior or ability at the same point in time.
Dependent variable The main behavior or response of interest in the study this is the researchers measure of the impact of the independent variable
Dishabituation Infants recovery of attention when new stimulus is introduced.
EEG A measurement of electrical activity in spontaneous natural rhythms in the brain
Ethnographic research A technique for exploring the interaction of culture and biology, and which researchers from a western culture make observations or conduct interviews and every day settings and non-western cultures
Event related potential ERP A measurement of electrical activity resulting in the brain from the presentation of discrete stimuli
External validity The degree to which the findings of ones that he can be extended or generalized to other samples in settings
Event sampling A technique and observational research and what’s the small number of behaviors or identified in the researcher makes a note each time they occur by making them work
Experimental design I design that examines the influence of an independent variable on a dependent variable
Habituation The phenomenon and watch And Events gradually lose interest in a stimuli after Repeated it presentations
Independent variable Aspects of a resort setting that research identify or very
Informed consent I Chi requirement in ethical research
Internal validity The degree in which differences in the dependent variable or actually due to differences in the independent variablet
Laboratory setting Especially designed research space that enables researchers to control or illuminate the influence of irrelevant or distracting factors
Longitudinal research The development of design in which investigator study the same sample of participants
Measurement equivalenence Correspondence between the measures or dependent variables used as two different points of time
Measurement equivalent Correspondence between the measures or dependent variables used to different points in time
Micro genetic research A developmental design in which participants are observed to repair the time
Narrative record A detailed description of the range of behaviors researchers observe
Naturalistic observation’s Studies in which researchers remaining were relatively positive it observers
Naturalistic setting Studies in which researchers observe infants in their usual surroundings
Observer bias The phenomenon in which researchers expectations or believe or influence by the way the recorder interpret behavior
Operational definition A clear concrete verbal description that enables researchers to Measure target behaviors and outcomes
Orienting response Infants behavior the first time and stimulus is presented a characterized by Momentary cessation of any ongoing activity in order to get close attention to this new stimuli
Parental report Data provided about influence behavior and development by their parents and caregiver
Practice affect Improvement in participants performance as a result of the repeated exposure to the measure of those abilities
Cause I experimental design I design in which researchers collect information about groups of participants that are already formed before the study begins
Random assignmen Equivalent of flipping a coin this technique is used to ensure that each child has an equal chance of being placed in to the different groups being compared on a specific dependent
Research ethics I said a principles and guidelines for conducting acceptable research
Single subject research Variation of the case study in which researchers intervene or studied affects of an experimental manipulation with an a single participant
Visual And friends looking behavior is Jim Lynn presented in Laboratory settings
Visual preference method A technique in which infant look king behavior is used to determine their ability to perceive a notice differences between stimuli presented in a laboratory setting
Created by: jenwill2