Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Gender and Rhetoric

SCU Class Mid Term Prep

TermsDefinitions
Sex 1. A designation based on biology 2. biological difference
Gender 1. A social, symbolic construction that varies across cultures, over time within a given culture, over the course of life spans, and in relation to other genders 2. one’s self identity, how one associates oneself as masculine and/or feminine
Persuasion The intentional use of verbal and visual symbols to direct belief and/or behavior
Performativity Gender is a “stylized repetition of acts” ~gender is real only the extent that it is performed
Intersectionality (Gender Preface) Identity cannot be understood as singular (i.e. female.) or additive (female + white + middle class + straight.). Rather, it must be understood as multiplicative (cake analogy = parts are not divisible) ~Seven Principles
Performativity We “do” gender by how we perform verbally and visually. ~Just like how actors learn scripts, we each learn a gender script for which we are rewarded for correct performances andare punished for incorrect performances ~Seven Principles
Interdisciplinary Multiple approaches are used to understand gender ~ social scientific, humanities, and critical studies approaches are usedgender is examined across disciplines ~Seven Principles
Gender diversity Gender diversity on a spectrum, not a binary (masculine to feminine, not male or female) ~Seven Principles
Masculinity Gender studies (though it originated in Women’s Studies) does examine both masculinity and femininity as well as men’s and women's experiences ~Seven Principles
Violence Gender is interwoven with power and often violence is the way in which power is performed. ~Seven Principles
Emancipation Education is emancipation! ~ Gender awareness is about recognizing choices and implications. ~Seven Principles
Gendered Lens predominant cultural views about gender and sex, embedded/not recognized ~To use one’s critical gendered lens is to examine common assumptions about gender, sex, and communication
Intersectionality (Chapter 1) Identity is multiplicative, not additive
Why is Gender/Sex a Cultural Obsession? 1. Gender and sex are primary social categories in most Cultures 2. Assumption of difference is tied to heterosexual romance 3. In western, capitalist cultures sex, difference, and conquest sell 4. Focus on difference is political – difference masks in
Androgyny “andros” – male & “gyno” – female ~ persons with more gender flexibility
Gender binary a system having two distinct and exclusive genders
Intersexed person who has ambiguous or non-congruent sex features (1-4% global population)
Ambiguous person with mixed genitalia
Sexual orientation whether one is physically or romantically attracted to or has sex with a person of the same sex, the other sex, or both
Heteronormativity ways in which social institutions and policies reinforce the presumption that people are heterosexual, that gender and sex are binaries
Ethnicity a group of people who share a cultural history, even though they may no longer live in the same geographical area
Socioeconomic class Classism ~discrimination towards persons of lower socioeconomic class
National identity Nation one identifies with
Communication focus on role communication plays in the construction, maintenance, and change of social identities such as gender/sex
Rhetoric examines societal level and the larger discourse formations that happen there, how gender/sex influences how individuals engage in public rhetoric and how public rhetoric genders/sexes individuals
Culture conceptions of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes meanings, hierarchies, relations, time, social roles, world views, land, and even the material possessions of a people
Hegemony systems of hierarchy maintained by the predominant social group’s ideology that come to dominate other groups ways in which dominant groups make their beliefs appear to be common sense must be maintained, repeated, reinforced, and modified Media
Cultural ideology ideas, values, beliefs, perceptions, and understandings that are known to members of a culture and that guide their behaviors
Power ability to get things done
Violence continuum all forms of such gendered/sexed practices and the degree of violence within each of them ~ all can be placed on the continuum
The way culture mirrors industrial factory processes, creating standardized goods and services for consumption (part 1) media outlets that produce, sponsor, display, and distribute cultural goods and services are most recently typified by increasing commercialization and ownership
The way culture mirrors industrial factory processes, creating standardized goods and services for consumption (part 2) University of Southern California, Annenberg School of Communication, Annenberg Inclusion Initiative
Marketplace feminism admittedly alluring in a time when more than half the population is still fighting to be valued equally, to be paid like their male counterparts, to control their bodies, to simply exist in public. Marketplace feminism can yield powerful optics. . . It c
Theoretical works by Adorno media create false consciousness – we believe we have a choice when really we are just being sold the status quo
Theoretical works by Fiske ~ polysemous media gives audiences choices and they actively engage and create meaning from them ~ meaning is created entirely by individuals
Theoretical works by Condit ~ polyvalence underlying meaning is understood by audiences (ideology) but individuals have some degree of interpretation
How do Women view themselves? (Ways of Seeing) Women watch themselves being looked at and then see themselves as object to be looked upon, presumed viewer is male
How are women seen in Cinema? (The Gaze) Cinema not only highlights women as objects, but the mechanics of production are woven into how women are viewed – women are seen as passive ~ Again, has been challenged because it presumes a male viewer and a female object
A focus on individual agency must... (Oppositional Gaze) ~ move beyond race and focus on standpoint ~ ask self from which perspective we view ~ recognize the degree to which one participates in culture ~ move from social critique to political action ~ be aware of the role that contemporary media eng
commodification selling of cultural, sexual or gender differences in a way that supports institutionalized discrimination
Hegemonic Masculinity Defines power in terms of physical force and control ~ Defines through occupational achievement ~ Represented in terms of family patriarchy, man is breadwinner ~ Symbolized by frontiersman and outdoorsman ~ Heterosexually defined
Empirical approach positivist ~ truth is objective and exists prior to research
Interpretive approach humanistic ~ knowledge or truth is not objective and can only be known through people’s perceptions
Critical approach cultural ~ knowledge, by nature, is subjective and political, knowledge is constructed via ideology
Biological Approach: Chromosomes ~ presence of y = male ~ Hyperandrogenism, a condition marked by extremely high testosterone levels in women ~ Caster Semenya, SA sprinter, 2016 Olympics
Biological Approach: Hormones ~ estrogen and testosterone ~ Swyer Syndrome
Biological Approach: Brain development ~ the corpus callosum is what bridges the two sides of the brain thought to be larger in men
Psychological Approach: Psychoanalysis ~ Freud
Psychological Approach: Social Learning ~ socialization as a passive process in which children learn by watching and imitating others and are rewarded for gender-appropriate behavior
Psychological Approach: Cognitive Development ~ active desire to development identity
Descriptive Cultural Approach: Symbolic Interactionism ~ communication creates gender and meaning identity is created via interaction with others
Descriptive Cultural Approach: Anthropology ~ explore a culture to understand norms and identities related to gender
Descriptive Cultural Approach: Two-culture theory ~ cross-cultural theory ~ men and women are socialized in two different groups and therefore experience cultural miscommunication
Critical Cultural Approach Shared Assumptions ~ Social reality of culture is communicatively constructed ~ Categories such as sex, gender, sexuality, race, become the focus of criticism ~ One cannot study gender/sex unless one studies systems of hierarchy ~ Oppositional critical views are ne
Standpoint Theory ~ social groups affect one’s worldview, those in marginalized groups have had to learn dominant group’s norms in order to survive (more than those in dominant group)
Social Constructionism ~ meaning is created via interaction with culture
Gender as Performance ~ individuals participate in the construction of their personal and group identities through daily enactments of gender
Multi-racial or global feminism ~ no singular gender experience defines men and women
Queer theory ~ process by which people have made dissident sexuality articulate
Post-structuralism ~ challenge universal assumptions
Conversation ~ process of two or more parties working interactively to create meanings through the exchange of verbal and nonverbal cues within a given context
Conversation work ~ intent, effort, and some degree of cooperation are required in the seemingly easy process of talking to others
Identity work ~ individuals presenting to themselves and others who they are at a given time and negotiating that identity with their partner
Altercasting ~ Highlights how the way we talk and act toward others (alters) puts them in roles (casts them) ~ The way in which we speak to someone can reinforce, restrict, contest, and/or add to one’s identity
Gender as emerging from social interactions gender is “an outcome and a rationale for various social arrangements”
Gender as a performance enabled and constrained by social norms ~ People constrain their own doings of gender as a result of social norms that have been internalized and are constrained by others’ social expectations of how gender should be done ~ Often read through a binary lens/ a correct and an incorrect way to
Cisgender one’s sex and one’s gender identity match predominant cultural expectations (female = high feminine, male = high masculine)
Two-Culture and Gender Diversity Approach Attributes conflict between men and women to idea that they exist on two different cultures much like how two different languages function ~ also referred to as “cross-cultural” view of gender ~ Assumes that men have a masculine style of communication
Performativity ~ Stylized repetition of acts genders people
Gender performance ~ gender as a creative act bound by constraint behaviors are all at once personally, socially, and politically structured scripts direct behavior “Always in a Process of Becoming...” (Butler)
Objectification ~When people are viewed as objects existing solely for the pleasure of the viewer, rather than as agents capable of action
Self-objectification ~ When people internalize the objectifier’s view of their body and “participate in their own objectification” by seeking to exert a limited power linked to their ability to attract the gaze of others
Body Surveillance ~ people internalize objectification, they critically look at and evaluate themselves
Agency ~ The ability to act or the degree to which people can control their experience or identities in a given situation through creative communication strategies and/or the manipulation of contextual circumstances
Using norms against each other ~ use compliance with social expectations attached to their gender to violate other expectations (legal, social, etc.) in a way others could not
Make norms visible ~ call out or display norms that work to objectify, etc. women
Overtly challenge norms ~ radically mark or adorn body so as to call out and challenge norms
Linguistic Relativity ~ Sapir-Whorf hypothesis ~ people cannot know things outside of language
Terministic Screens ~ words focus our attention on some things and away from others, language is a selection as well as a deflection of reality, people only see things for which they have words to name them
Framing ~ metaphors influence thinking on unconscious level
Muted Group Theory ~ Dominant groups have power over language ~ Dominant and nondominant groups have different cultural boundaries in their perceptions and language, language = self-actualization
He/man Language ~ man as generic pronoun “you guys”
Semantic Derogation ~ two terms exist that describe the exact same condition but the feminine one carries a lesser connotation “spinster” vs. “bachelor”
Semantic Imbalance ~ an overabundance of terms to describe something related to one group but a lack of terms to describe the other "Sexually promiscuous men vs. women"
Semantic Polarization ~ two parallel terms treated as though they were opposites “opposite sex” “Venus and Mars”
Marked and Unmarked Terms ~ denotes degree to which noun in question deviates from norm “black president” – marked vs. “President” – unmarked
Trivialization ~ use of diminutives “Falconettes” vs. “Falcons”
Lack of Vocabulary ~ cannot identify that which cannot be named
Truncated Passive ~ absence of active word, denies agency (Talks about victim not perpatrator)
Foucault’s (foo-ko) rules of exclusion: Silences ~ Topics – what is acceptable in public space/forum ~ People – what is acceptable from particular people ~ Places and forums – locations of credibility podium vs. platform
Talking Back ~ To speak one’s truth; talk with political conscience; talk as resistance ~ Avoids trivializing or romanticizing the process of finding voice ~ Avoids act of speaking over content ~ Prevents commoditization of oppositional voices
Counterpublic spheres Multiplicity of publics ~discursive arenas where subordinated groups invent and circulate counter-discourse to formulate oppositional interpretations of their identities, needs, and interests, parallel to the dominant public
Resignification reject existing meanings’ normative power and expose how term is constructed and attempt to change its connotation ~ Slut Walk
Strategic Essentialism and Rhetorics of Difference ~ essential attributes of a group are defined by the members themselves, groups recognize essentialism is an artificial construct
Moving over wary of voice and privilege, not to speak for other’s experience >Deaf Heart<
Created by: 744107714