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science

for science

TermDefinition
Genetics The science of how traits are inherited through alleles passed from one generation to another.
Inheritance Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
Gregor Mendel Did the first recorded scientific study on how traits are passed from one generation to the next.
Nucleus The structures inside a cell that directs the cells activities
Chromosomes Thread like strands of DNA and protein in a cell nucleus that carry the code for the cell characteristics of an organism.
Gene The segment of DNA on a chromosome that directs the making of a specific protein, thus controlling traits that are passed to offspring.
Allele a different form a gene may have for a trait.
Dominant allele dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Recessive allele A recessive allele is a variety of genetic code that does not create a phenotype if a dominant allele is present.
Phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism for a trait.
Homozygous alleles Homozygous is a word that refers to a particular gene that has identical alleles on both homologous chromosomes.
Heterozygous alleles In diploid organisms, heterozygous refers to an individual having two different alleles for a specific trait.
Mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Meiosis To put that another way, meiosis in humans is a division process that takes us from a diploid cell one with two sets of chromosomes to haploid cells
Punnett square The Punnett square is a square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross or breeding experiment.
Feature a distinctive attribute or aspect of something.
Trait a genetically determined characteristic.
Adaptation Any characteristic of an organism that makes it better able to survive in its environment.
natural selection the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring
sexual reproduction the production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types of sexes.
asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes
codominance Codominance is a form of dominance wherein the alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed
mutation A mutation is a change that occurs in our DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is copied or as the result of environmental factors such as UV light and cigarette smoke.
Charles Darwin Person who developed the theory of evolution.
Incomplete dominance the production of phenotype that is intermediate to those of the two homozygous parents.
Created by: tempe