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Stretching

stretching indication, precautions, techniques, etc..

QuestionAnswer
stretch function to increase ROM and mobility around a joint or series of joints
stretch elongate structure around joint
mobility ability to be moved
flexibility move through unrestricted pain free ROM
hypomobility restricted motion caused by adaptive shortening
adaptive shortening prolonged immob, sedentary lifestyle, poor posture, muscle imbalance, weakness assiciated with muscle disorder, inflamation, pain, deformities
contractures adaptive shortening that results in resistance to stretch, limitation in ROM and decreased functional ability (designated by action of shortened muscle)
myostatic contracture shortening of muscle without pathology
pseudomyostatic apparent contracture, spacticity, muscle guarding
arthogenic/periarticular intra-articular pathology ie capsular restriction
fibrotic fiberous changes to soft tissue (scar tissue)
indications for use of stretching limited ROM due to adhesions, contractures, scar tissue formation/preventable structural deformities/Muscle shortening due to weakness/fitness program designed to prevent injury/ Before and after vigorous exercise to minimize post exercise muscle soreness
contraindications for use of stretching bony block,recent fracture,acute inflammtion/infection,acute pain w/joint movement or muscle elongation, hematoma, hypermobility,if shortened tissues are "functinal", if shortened tissues provide joint stability in lieu of normal structures or control
precautions don't force beyond normal ROM (and normal ROM varies!), osteoporosis, long period of immobilization, age, prolonged steroid use, newly united fractures, edema, overstretching weak muscles
stretch reflex muscle spindle - golgi tendon organ
muscle spindle belly of muscle reports velocity and changes in lenght of muscle to brain facilitates reflexive contraction to protect from injury
golgi tendon organ senses change in tension a muscle tendon junction inhibits motor neuron activity (relax tells motor nerve to shut down so no contraction)
stress strain curve visual representation of what happens to soft tissues under a stress (toe, elastic range, plastic range, neck, failure)
alignment positioning of the body or segment to ensure stretch is applied to appropriate muscle group
stabilization fixing one end of the segment
intensity how much force is used (low load optimal lengthening)
duration amount of time stretch force is applied
long static or prolonged 30 second is avg
static progressive lengthen, muscle gives lengthen more
short cycles- slow repeated low intensity and ballistic- bouncing rapid forceful high intensity (bad)
speed slow and sustained force applied gradually
frequency number of sessions per day or week
mode manual, self, mechanical, neuromuscular inhibition
mechanical use tool or device
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Faciliation (PNF) Hold-relax (HR) or contract-relax (CR); Agonist contraction (AC); Hold-relax with agonist contraction (HR-AC)
HR hold relax the tight muscle (antatgonist) is lengthened isometrically contracts (5 second) followed by period of relaxation and passive elongation
CR contract relax the tight muscle (antagonist) is lengthened concentrically contracts through out the ROM followed by a period of relaxation and passive elongation
HR-AC HR technique followed by AC tech
self stretch pt. carries out independently after careful instruction
manual stretch therapist applies external force to move involved body segment slightly beyond the point of tissue resistance and available ROM
AC agonist contraction pt. concentrically contracts (shortens) muscle opposite the range limiting muscle then holds the end-of-range position for several seconds
static soft tissues are elongated just past point of tissue resistance and held in lengthened position w/sustained stretch for 30-60 sec.
cyclic short duration stretch force repeatedly but gradually applied, released, reapplied...with stretches held between 5-10 sec.
ballistic rapid,forceful intermittent high-speed and high-intensity stretch by the use of quick bouncing movements
What is the difference between 'stretching' and 'ROM'? Stretching takes soft tissue beyond their available length to INICREASE ROM. ROM exercises stay within the limits of tissue extensibility to MAINTAIN available length.
"Ideal" stretch low load and prolonged
Created by: llacorte