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Pain & Inflammaion

Cox-1 enzymes (protective) do these 3 things protect stomach lining, activate platelet aggregation, & maintain renal (kidneys) blood flow
Cox-2 enzymes (non-protective) do these 3 things trigger pain, trigger inflammation, & trigger fever
Aspirin NSAIDs are non-opioid analgesics. A few things you should know about them are... stop 1 week before surgery, potential to lose protective stomach lining, and don't give to children
You shouldn't give aspirin NSAIDs to children because it could cause... Reye's syndrome (swelling in the brain)
Salicylism (aspirin toxicity) can cause... fever, respiratory depression, coma, tinnitus, nausea, abdominal pain, & tachypnea
Therapeutic uses of aspirin analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, & anti-platelet aggregation
Complications/side effects of aspirin GI effects, bleeding, Reye's syndrome, & salicylism
Contraindications of aspirin peptic ulcer disease, bleeding disorders, & vitamin K deficiency (since K+ helps w/clotting)
Interactions w/aspirin ibuprofen & warfarin
Non-aspirin NSAIDs meds 1st gen: ibuprofen, 2nd gen: Celebrex (celecoxib)
A good thing to remember about Celebrex (celecoxib) med is... that it's only selective to Cox-2 enzymes
Therapeutic uses of non-aspirin NSAIDs (ibuprofen & Celebrex) analgesic, anti-pyretic, & anti-inflammatory
Complications/side effects of non-aspirin NSAIDs (ibuprofen & Celebrex) GI irritation, increased risk of a myocardial infarction, & impaired kidney function
Contraindications of non-aspirin NSAIDs (ibuprofen & Celebrex) Peptic ulcer disease w/ibuprofen & Sulfonamide allergy w/Celebrex (celecoxib)
Interactions of non-aspirin NSAIDs (ibuprofen & Celebrex) alcohol & aspirin
The max dose of acetaminophen per day is... 4000mg or 4g
Therapeutic uses of acetaminophen analgesic & anti-pyretic
Complications/side effects of acetaminophen acetaminophen over-dose
Contraindication of acetaminophen alcohol-use disorder
Interactions with acetaminophen warfarin & OTC cold meds
Good things to remember with non-opioid tramadol... may take 1 hour to work, take it with food, and increase fluid, fiber, and fitness
Therapeutic uses for non-opioid tramadol analgesic
Complications/side effects of non-opioid tramadol sedation, dizziness, seizures, respiratory depression, nausea, & constipation
Contraindications of non-opioid tramadol seizure disorder
Interactions with non-opioid tramadol CNS depressants
Opioid analgesics have 5 categories... opioid agonists, opioid agonist-antagonists, opioid antagonists, migraine medications, & local anesthetics
Opioid agonist meds morphine & fentanyl patch
Therapeutic uses of opioid agonists (morphine & fentanyl patch) analgesia & sedation
Complications/side effects of opioid agonists (morphine & fentanyl patch) respiratory depression, sedation, cough suppression, biliary colic, anticholinergic effects (can't x4), orthostatic hypotension, nausea, dependency, & overdose
Contraindications of opioid agonists (morphine & fentanyl patch) chronic respiratory issues, biliary tract surgery, & paralytic ileus
Interactions with opioid agonists (morphine & fentanyl patch) CNS depressants & anticholinergics
Good things to remember with opioid agonist-antagonists... No euphoria with these meds so they're less addictive, we'd monitor for HTN, abdominal cramps, vomiting (signs of abstinence syndrome), if someone were taking the Fentanyl patch at the same time, the pain relief from the patch would be removed
Opioid agonist-antagonists meds butorphanol & naloxone
Therapeutic uses for opioid agonist-antagonists (butorphanol) analgesic, opioid dependence, adjunct to anesthesia, & labor pain
Complications/side effects for opioid agonist-antagonists (butorphanol) abstinence syndrome, headache, nausea, dizziness, respiratory depression, sedation
Contraindications with opioid agonist-antagonists (butorphanol) physical dependence on opioids
Interactions with opioid agonist-antagonists (butorphanol) CNS depressants & opioid agonists
Opioid antagonists meds naltrexone & naloxone
Therapeutic use for opioid antagonists (naltrexone & naloxone) opioid over-dose & severe OIC (opioid induced constipation)
Complications/side effects for opioid antagonists (naltrexone & naloxone) tachycardia, tachypnea, increased pain, & abstinence syndrome
Abstinence syndrome symptoms... HTN, abdominal cramps, & vomiting
Migraine meds (-triptans) sumatriptan
Therapeutic uses for migraine meds (sumatriptan) terminate migraine through vasoconstriction
Complications/side effects for migraine meds (sumatriptan) *HTN* & dizziness
Contraindications for migraine meds (sumatriptan) uncontrolled HTN
Migraine meds (sumatriptan) are available in these 4 forms... oral, SubQ, rectal, & intranasal
Local anesthetic meds (-caine) lidocaine & cetacaine
Therapeutic uses for local anesthetics (lidocaine & cetacaine) blocks pain impulses in a specific area
Complications/side effects for local anesthetics (lidocaine & cetacaine) *seizures* & hypotension
Interaction with local anesthetics (lidocaine & cetacaine) anti-hypertensive drugs
Local anesthetics (lidocaine & cetacaine) are available in these 2 routes... parenteral (IV or injection) & topical ointments
With topical administration, you should remember... Keep NPO order until pharyngeal sensation returns
Inflammation has 2 categories of meds... uricosurics & glucocorticoids
Uricosurics med allopurinol
Good to know while taking a uricosuric (allopurinol)... Patients should consume 3L of water/day & be on the lookout for fever or rash
Therapeutic uses for a uricosuric (allopurinol) hyperuricemia (r/t gout or chemotherapy)
Complications/side effects for a uricosuric (allopurinol) hypersensitivity syndrome & metallic taste
Contraindications for a uricosuric (allopurinol) liver or kidney impairment
Interactions with a uricosuric (allopurinol) warfarin
Glucocorticoids meds prednisone & dexamethasone
Good to know with glucocorticoids (prednisone & dexamethasone)... patient will feel really hungry at first, but the effect with go away in time & it's a taper drug
Therapeutic uses for glucocorticoids (prednisone & dexamethasone) inflammatory disorders, autoimmune disorders, & organ rejection
Complications/side effects for glucocorticoids (prednisone & dexamethasone) peptic ulcer disease/GI discomfort, osteoporosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, & infection
Contraindications for glucocorticoids (prednisone & dexamethasone) peptic ulcer disease & osteoporosis
Interaction with glucocorticoids (prednisone & dexamethasone) furosemide
Created by: tiffhales



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