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Neuro retake

retake final

the ANS is responsible for? regulation of circulation, respiration, digestion, metabolism, secretion, body temperature & reproduction
control ctr of ANS is in hypothalamus & brain stem
ANS is composed of.... motor neurons located w/in spinal nerves that innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle & glands (also called effectors or target nerves)
ANS divided into what 2 divisions? sympathetic & parasympathetic
parasympathetic & sympathetic innervate & travel how? internal organs, use a two-neuron pathway & one ganglion impulse conduction & function automatically
how is auto regulation achieved for symp & parasymp? by intergrating info from peripheral afferents w/info from recpetors w/in CNS
what provides the connection from the CNS to the autonomic efferent organs? the two neuron pathway (pre & post ganglionic)
where are cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons found? w/in the brain or spinal cord
how does the connection happen? myelinated axons exit the CNS & synapse w/collections of postganglionic cell bodies, unmyelinated axons from the postganglionic neurons ultimately innervate the effector organs
where do the sympathetic fibers of the ANS arise from? thoracic & lumbar portions of the spinal cord
where do axons of reganglionic neurons terminate? either the sympathetic chain or the prevertebral ganglia located in the abdomen.
what is the response of sympathetic division? assists the individual in responding to stessful situations, "fight or flight".
how does the symp division help the body prepare to cope w/perceived stimulus? by maintaining an optimal blood supply
body's response to activation of symph system release of norepinephrine, major neurotransmitter causes vasoconstriction, heart rate & BP inc, blood flow to mm's increased by diverting fro gastrointenstinal tract
role of the parasympathetic? maintain vital bodily functions or homeeostasis
where does the parasymp receive info from? brain stem, cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X & lower sacral segments of spinal cord
vagus nerve is parasympathetic preganglionic nerve or postganglionic? parasym preganglionic
motor fibers w/in vagus nerve innervate.... myocardium & smooth muscle of lungs & digestive tract
from which nerve do the motor fibers come from that innervate the myocardium & smooth muscle fibers of lungs & digestive tract? vagus nerve
activation of the vagus nerve does what? can produce bradycardia, decrease force of cardia mm contraction bronchoconstriction, inc mucus production, inc peristalsis, inc glandular secretions.
efferent activation of hte sacral components result in? emptying of the bowels and bladder & arousal of sexual organs.
what is responsible for sending nervous system impulses to effector cells in the parasypm division? acetylcholine (ACH), chemical transmitter
what is used for both divisions at the preganglionic synapse & to dilate arterioles? acetylcholine
activation of the parasympathetic division produces vasoconstriction or vasodilation? vasodilation
when a person is calm, the parasymp activity increases or decreases heart rate & blood pressure and does what to the gastrointestinal activity? decreases HR & BP, returns to normal the gastrointestinal
what regulates functions of digestion and medulla which controls heart & respiration rates? hypothalamus
cells w/in the brain completely depend on continuous supply of blood for ____________? glucose & oxygen
what do the neurons in the brain need to carry out glycolysis to store glycogen? constant supply of blood
cerebrovascular anatomy is the basis for understanding the...... clinical manifistations, diagnosis & mangement of pts who have sustained cerebrovascular accidents and TBI
all arteries to the brain arise from? aortic arch
first major arteries ascending anteriorly & laterally w/in neck are? common carotid arteries
common carotid arteries supply ............ bulk of cerebrum with circulation
what arteries supply the face? external carotid arteries
what arteries enter the cranium and supply the cerebral hemisphere, frontal lobe, parietal lobe & parts of temporal lobe, optic nerves & retina? internal carotids
if a neuron dies due to lack of oxygen, can it regenerate? no
effect of high levels of glutamate has what effect on neurons? toxic & promote cell death, facilitate calcium release which produces calcium dependant digestive enzymes, cellular edema, cell injury & death
changes w/in a cell happen how? evident 12-24 hrs, 24-36 hrs become soft & edematous, liquefaction & cavitation begin, necrotic tissue converts to cyst infarct retracts, cystic cavity surrounded by glial scar, neurons are not replaced, orig function of area lost
common causes of peripheral nerve injuries.... stretching, laceration, compression, traction, disease, chemical toxicity, nutritional deficiencies.
what is the response of peripheral nerve injury? cell body destroyed > regeneration is not possible, axon undergoes necrosis distal to the site of injury, myelin sheath begins to pull away, Schwann cells phagocytize the area, producing wallerian degeneration.
if damage to the peripheral nerve is not too significant and occurs only to the axon, is regeneration possible? yes, axonal sprouting from the proximal end of damaged axon can occur
what has to occur for a return of function? and what happens if that does not occur? to have return of function, axon must grow & reinnervate the appropriate mm. if not, degeneration of axonal sprout
what determines the rate of recovery from a peripheral nerve injury? age of patient and distance betw lesion & destination of the regenerating nerve fibers.
damage to the corticospinal tract from its origin in the frontal lobe to its end win the spinal cord is classified as what type of injury? upper motor neuron injury
if a patient presents with spasticity ( increased resistance to passive stretch), hpyerreflexia, the presence of a Babinski sign, and possible clonus, indication of? upper motor neuron injury
a repetitive stretch reflex that is elicited by passive dorsiflexion of the ankle or passive wrist extension is? clonus
a lower motor neuron injury occurs where? anterior horn cell, motor nerve cells of the brain stem, spinal root or spinal nerve
patient presents with flaccidity, marked atrophy, mm fasciculations & hyporeflexia, indication of? lower motor neuron injury
what is the function of white matter? white matter is compolese of myelinated axons that carry info away from cell bodies
what are some of the primary functions of the parietal lobe? sensory processing, perception & short-term memory
what is Broca's aphasia? inability to perform motor components necessary for speech. pt may experience weakness of the lips & tongue mm
primary function of the thalamus? central relay station for sensory impulses traveling from other parts of the body & brain to the cerebrum. motor information received from the basal ganglia & cerebellum is transmitted to the motor cortex thru the thalamus
primary function of the corticospinal tract primary motor pathway
what is an anterior horn cell? and where are they located located w/in gray matter of spinal cord. send axons out thru ventral root that eventually become preripheral nerves that innervate mm fibers
PNS? divided into somatic & autonomic division
most common site of cerebral infarction? middle cerebral artery
what are clinical signs of upper motor neuron injury? spasticity, hyperreflexia, presence of Babinski sign & possibly clonus
somatic nervous system under conscius control & responsible for skeletal mm contraction
autonomic nervous system involuntary system that functions to maintain homeostasis or optimal internal environment
Created by: djbari
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