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Ch 11 Cranium-SKULL

Bontrager RAD 112

QuestionAnswer
How many bones make up the cranium? 8
How many bones make up the facial bones? 14
Which four bones form the calvaria? frontal; right parietal; left parietal; occipital
Which four bones form the floor of the cranium? Right temporal; left temporal; sphenoid; ethmoid
The small horizontal plate of the ethmoid is called _____. cribriform plate
The superior, vertical plate of the ethmoid, forming the upper portion of the bony nasal septum is _____. crista galli (rooster's comb)
Name the lateral junction of the eyelid. outer canthus
Name the posterior angle of the jaw. Gonion
Name the line between the infraorbital margin and EAM, Infraorbitomeatal line - IOML
What corresponds to the highest "nuchal" line of the occipital bone? inion
Name the line between the mental point and the EAM. Mentomeatal line - MML
What is located at the junction of the two nasal bones and the frontal bone? nasion
Name the small cartilaginous flap covering the ear opening. tragus
What corresponds to the highest level of the facial bone mass? supraorbital groove
Name the line between the midlateral orbital margin and the EAM. Orbitomeatal line - OML
What is the center point of the EAM called? auricular point
Name the positioning line that is primarily used for modified Waters projection. lips-meatal line
What is the line called that is used to ensure the skull is in a true lateral position? interpupillary line
What corresponds to the level of the petrous ridge? TEA - superior attachment of the auricle (top of ear attachment)
Name the smooth, slightly depressed area between the eyebrows. Glabella
What is the average kV range for digital skull radiography? 80 - 90 kV
List the five most common positioning errors for skull work. 1. tilt 2. rotation 3. excessive neck flexion 4. excessive neck extension 5. incorrect CR angle
Bilateral horizontal fractures of the maxillae describe a _____ fracture. Le Fort - may result in unstable detached fragment
How do you fix Skull tilt? tip GAL back to parallel to IR
How do you fix Skull AP image for rotation? adjust face of patient to same side as wide
How do you fix Skull PA image for rotation? adjust base of skull of patient to same side as narrow
How do you tell between Skull PA and AP? look at orbits - larger orbits are AP due to magnification from OID
Skull - How do you identify lateral tilt? one SOM (supraorbital margin) will be superior to the other
Skull - How do you identify lateral rotation? one EAM will be anterior to the other
How do you identify excessive flexion? Too much chin tuck
How do you identify excessive extension? too much raised chin
What two positions will the body be in for ALL laterals? LAO or RAO
Why is erect preferred for skull imaging? to demonstrate air/fluid levels in sinuses
What is the number one positioning line? OML - orbitomeatal line
What is the number two positioning line? IOML - infraorbitomeatal line
Describe the IPL. Interpupillary line - imaginary line between the two pupils
Describe the GAL. Glabelloalveolar line - imaginary line from the glabella to the mental point. (maintains true lateral when different from MSP)
A lack of symmetry of the petrous ridges indicates which of the following problems with a radiograph of an AP axial projection? A) tilt B) CR angle C) flexion or extension D) rotation d) rotation
What positioning error has been committed if the EAMs are not superimposed with one more superior than the other on a lateral projection of the cranium? tilt
Describe the MML. mentomeatal line - imaginary line from the chin to the EAM
Describe the AML. acanthiomeatal line - imaginary line from the acanthion (prominence at base of the nose) to the EAM
Describe the IOML. infraorbitomeatal line - imaginary line from the infraorbital margin to the EAM. It is the second most used positioning line.
Describe the OML. orbitomeatal line - imaginary line from outer canthus to EAM. It is the second most used positioning line.
Describe the GML. Glabellomeatal line - imaginary line from glabella to EAM
Describe the lips-meatal line. imaginary line from lips to EAM.
When the patient is positioned PA with the MML perpendicular to the IR, what angle is important? the OML forms a 37' angle to the IR
When the patient is positioned PA with the LML perpendicular to the IR, what angle is important? the OML forms a 55' angle to the IR
Describe squamous bone. thin, easily broken, susceptible to fractures (squamous = thin, upper portion of temporal bone) Forms part of side wall of cranium
How many bones does a parietal bone articulate with? and what are they? 5 cranial bones; Frontal Occipital Temporal Sphenoid Opposite parietal
How many bones does the frontal bone articulate with? and what are they? 4 cranial bones; 2 parietal sphenoid ethmoid
How many bones does the occipital bone articulate with? and what are they? 5 cranial bones; 2 parietal bones 2 temporal bones sphenoid Atlas or C1
How many bones does a temporal bone articulate with? and what are they? 3 cranial bones; Occipital bone Sphenoid Parietal
How many bones does the sphenoid bone articulate with? and what are they? All 7 cranial bones; 2 parietal 2 temporal frontal occipital ethmoid 9 Facial Bones 2 lacrimal 2 maxillae 2 zygoma 2 palatine 1 vomer
How many bones does the ethmoid bone articulate with? and what are they? 6 TOTAL 2 cranial bones; sphenoid frontal 4 facial bones 2 lacrimal 2 maxillae
What is the densest portion of the skull? Petrous ridges Petrous pyramid Pars petrosa Petramastoid portion
What does the sella turcica protect? Pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri)
A structure found in the middle of the sphenoid bone that surrounds the pituitary gland is the _____. Sella turcica
The posterior aspect of the sella turcica is called _____. Dorsum sellae
Which structure of the sphenoid bone allows for the passage of the optic nerve and is the actual opening into the orbit? Optic foramen
Which structures of the sphenoid bone help to form part of the lateral walls of the nasal cavities? Medial and lateral pterygoid processes
Which radiographic projection best demonstrates the sella turcica and dorsum sellae? Lateral
Which aspect of the frontal bone forms the superior aspect of the orbit? orbital or horizontal portion
Name the four major sutures. Coronal Lambdoidal squamousal Sagittal
What is an asterion? The point behind the ear where the squamous and lambdoidal sutures meet (3 bones join - temporal, parietal, occipital)
Name the junction between the occipital, parietal and temporal bones. Right and left asterion
What is a pterion? Where the temporal and sphenoparietal sutures meet; the point at the junction of the frontal, parietals, temporals, and greater wings of sphenoid
Name the pterions. Right and left pterion
Cranial sutures are classified as being _____ joints. fibrous joints or synarthroidial type (non-moving)
Small, irregular bones that develop in adult skull sutures are called _____ or _____ bones and are most frequently found in the _____ suture. sutural; Wormian; Lambdoidal suture
Which term describes the upper rim of the orbit? Supraorbital margin (SOM)
What is the name of the notch that separates the orbital plates from each other? Ethmoidal notch
Which cranial bones form the upper lateral walls of the calvarium? Right and left parietals
Which cranial bone contains the foramen magnum? Occipital
A small prominence located on the squamous portion of the occipital bone is called _____. external occipital protuberance or inion
What is the name of the oval processes found on the occipital bone that helps form the atlanto-occipital joint? Occipital condyles or lateral condylar portions
List three aspects of the temporal bones. squamous; mastoid; petrous
TRUE/FALSE The mastoid portion of the temporal bone is the densest of the three aspects of the temporal bone. FALSE - petrous portion
Which external landmark corresponds to the level of the petrous ridge? TEA - top of ear attachment
Which opening in the temporal bone serves as a passageway for nerves of hearing and equilibrium? external acoustic meatus
Which structure makes up the cartilaginous external ear? Pinna or auricle
How long is the average external acoustic meatus? 2.5 cm long
Which bone and which part of that bone form a base of support for the PONS? Sphenoid bone, the CLIVUS
On the anterior and posterior portions of the sella turcica are processes. What are they called? 2 Anterior clinoids and 2 posterior clinoids
Which bone is the most inferior of the calvaria? sphenoid
Which bone is considered the "anchor" bone of the skull? and why? Sphenoid; Because it articulates with all other (7) calvaria bones
How many foramen are in the greater wing? and what are they called from anterior to posterior? 3 right and 3 left; Foramen rotunda, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum
What is the name of the fissure under the spine of the lesser wing of the sphenoid? superior orbital fissure
What is the name of the bony projections that arise from the posterior aspect of the lesser wings? anterior clinoids
What is the name of the groove that passes inferior to the lesser wing and anterior to the anterior clinoid processes? Chiasmatic (optic) groove which leads to the optic canals which transit to the orbits via the optic foramen
What is the name of the processes that extend downward from the inferior body of the sphenoid? What are the parts of these processes? What is the hook-like end of the middle parts called? Lateral pterygoid processes (plates); Lateral and medial pterygoid processes; pterygoid hamuli
What is the function of the processes that extend downward from the inferior body of the sphenoid? to form the lateral walls of the nasal cavities
Which bone lies primarily below the floor of the cranium? Ethmoid
What is the small, upper horizontal portion of the ethmoid bone called? What is its function? Cribriform plate; many small foramina that allow olfactory nerves to pass
What is the portion of the ethmoid that projects superiorly from the cribriform plate called? Crista galli (rooster's comb)
What is the portion of the ethmoid bone that projects inferiorly from the cribriform plate called? perpendicular plate - helps to form the bony nasal septum
What is the portion of the ethmoid bone that projects inferiorly and laterally called? what does this portion contain? Lateral labyrinths (masses); ethmoid air cells;
What are the thin, scroll-like projections of bone that extend inferiorly from the lateral labyrinths of the ethmoid bone called? superior and medial nasal conchae or turbinates
How many bones does the ethmoid bone articulate with? 2 cranial and 11 facial; CRANIAL frontal and sphenoid; FACIAL 2 Maxillae, 2 Palatine, 2 lacrimal, 2 nasal, 2 inferior nasal conchae
What are the articulations of the cranium called? sutures - fibrous joints that are synarthrodial-type
Name the cranial sutures. Sagittal; coronal; squamosal; Lambdoidal
Name the junction of the coronal and sagittal suture. Bregma
Name the junction of the lambdoidal and squamosal sutures. Right and left asterions
Name the junction of the lambdoidal and sagittal suture. Lambda
Name the junction of the parietal, temporal and sphenoidal bones. Right and left pterions
What is the hollow body of the sphenoid called? sphenoid sinus
What is the hollow area posterior to the glabella called? Which bone is it in? frontal sinus; Frontal bone
What are fontanels? regions where sutures join but are slower in ossification; completes ossification after birth
How many fontanels is a typical infant born with? Describe them. 6 fontanels; Anterior fontanel (Bregma in adult) posterior fontanel (Lambda in adult) Right and left sphenoid fontanels (right and left pterions) Right and left mastoid fontanels (right and left asterions)
Cranial sutures are classified as being _____ joints. FIBROUS SYNARTHRODIAL-type
Small, irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult skull sutures are called _____ or _____. They are most frequently found in the _____ suture. sutural or Wormian bones; Lambdoidal suture
Which term describes the upper orbit? Include abbreviation too. Supraorbital margin SOM
Which aspect of the temporal bone is considered the densest? Petrous ridges; petrous pyramids
Which small membrane marks the beginning of the middle ear? tympanic membrane
What is the collective term for the small bones of the ear? Auditory Ossicles Hammer, anvil, stirrup; Malleus, Stapes, Incus
Which structure allows for communication between the nasopharynx and the middle ear? Eustachian tube Auditory tube
What is the purpose of the Eustachian tube? to equalize atmospheric pressure in middle ear
Which structure serves as an opening between the mastoid portion of the temporal bone and the middle ear? Aditus
What is the name of the thin plate of bone that separates the mastoid air cells from the brain? Tegman tympani
Which of the auditory ossicles picks up sound vibration from tympanic membrane? Malleus
Which auditory ossicle is considered the smallest? Stapes
Which auditory ossicle resembles a premolar tooth? Incus
Which two sensory functions occur within the inner ear? Equilibrium and Hearing
What is the name of the small membrane found at the base of the cochlea (possible 2 terms)? oval or vestibular window
TRUE/FALSE The semicircular canals include a closed system specific to the sense of hearing. FALSE
Which of the following radiographic appearances pertains to an acoustic neuroma? A) expansion of the internal acoustic canal B) bone destruction within the middle ear C) increased density in the sinus D) sinus mucosal thickening A) expansion of the internal acoustic canal
Which of the following is not a facial bone? A) middle nasal conchae B) Vomer C) Lacrimal bone D) Mandible A) Middle nasal conchae
What is the largest immovable bone of the face? Maxillae
List the four processes of the maxilla. A) Frontal B) alveolar C) palatine D) zygomatic
Which soft tissue landmark is found at the base of the nasal spine? Acanthion
Which facial bones form the posterior aspect of the hard palate? palatine bones
Which two cranial bones articulate with the maxilla? Frontal and ethmoid
Which three structures form the nasal septum? perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone vomer septal cartilage
What are the seven bones of the orbit? Describe whether they are cranial or facial. Frontal - cranial Ethmoid - cranial Lacrimal - facial Sphenoid - cranial Zygomatic - facial Maxillae - facial Palatine - facial
Identify the foramina within the orbit. Also, identify the fissures. optic foramen Superior orbital fissure inferior orbital fissure
What is the small structure of bone between the optic foramina and the superior orbital fissure? sphenoid strut
An infection of the teeth may travel upward and involve the _____ sinus. maxillary
Specifically, where are the frontal sinuses located? Superior to the nasion, posterior to the glabella - between the inner and outer tables of the skull
The frontal sinuses rarely become aerated before the age of _____. 6
Which specific aspect of the ethmoid bone contains the ethmoid sinuses? the lateral masses or labyrinths
The drainage pathway for the paranasal sinuses is called the _____. Osteomeatal complex
Which sinus is projected through the open mouth with a PA axial transoral projection? sphenoid sinus
Which projection best demonstrates the paranasal sinuses? Open mouth Waters
What is the name of the passageway between the maxillary sinuses and the middle nasal meatus? infundibulum
TRUE/FALSE Most CT studies of the sinuses do not require the use of contrast media. TRUE
Which position is most often used when performing a CT study of the sinuses? PRONE
Created by: Larobbins