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Neural basis of memory and learning Neural Plasticity Structure & function changed by experience. Physiological (biological) basis of learning & memory. Certain periods where the brain is more plastic (adaptable) then others. More complex experience with sensory input, more distinctive structural change
Neural basis of memory and learning Synaptic plasticity Ability of synapse to change over time. Flexible, pliable, melleable
Changes in synaptic strength Long Term Potentiation (LTP) Long term strengthening of the synaptic connections resulting in more effective synaptic transmission. Improves ability of 2 neurons to communicate at synapse. Increases ability of neural transmission and leads to synaptic strengthening
Changes in synaptic strength Long term depression (LTD) Decreases & weakens synaptic connections. opposite of LTP, less affective synaptic transmission & decreased ability of neural transmission. Lack of simulation causes post-synaptic neuron to become less responsive & leads to synaptic weakening.
Neurotransmitters and neurohormones Neurotransmitters Chemical message manufactured by neurons and released from axon terminals to interact between pre and post synaptic neurons. Only function as a neurotransmitter, can enhance or inhibit a response, and messages travel quickly. Eg. glutamate
Neurotransmitters and neurohormones Neurohormones Chemical messages manufactured by neurons & released from axon terminals but are released into capillaries to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Can function as a hormone or a neurotransmitter. Can enhance or inhibit a response, messages travel more slowly
Glutamate in synaptic plasticity Main excitatory neurotransmitter, making post synaptic neurons more likely to fire. Promotes growth & strengthening, which represents the memory of something we learn. Vital role in LTP & LTD. When glutamate excites neurons = LTP. When not = LTD
Adrenaline in consolidation Consolidation Process of making newly formed memories enduring and stable after learning. Temporarily stored in STM>LTM. Vulnerable for 30 mins. If disrupted, info may be lost. Hippocampus consolidates memories. When memories are changed>reconsolidated.
Adrenaline in consolidation Adrenaline Can enhance the consolidation of LTM of emotionally arousing experiences. These events are more likely to be remembered. Adrenaline causes the release of noradrenaline (epinephrine) in the amygdala which tells the hippocampus the details are significant
Reconsolidation Revisiting a long-term memory, changing the memory in short term, and sending it back to long term
Classical Conditioning A simple form of learning which occurs through repeated association of two stimuli. Learning is said to have occurred when a particular stimulus consistently produces a response that did not previously exist. Learn to associate two events/stimulus
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov and his dogs Discover of CC by accident Wanted to study digestion & role of saliva. Rerouted saliva ducts to tubes to measure. Research troubled when dogs began to fill tubes before food was presented. Dogs learnt to anticipate food when they saw the lab tech guy
Classical Conditioning Main elements The Neural stimulus (NS) The name given to the conditioned stimulus before it becomes conditioned eg. bell or lab tech guy
Classical Conditioning Main elements The conditioned stimulus (CS) The stimulus which is neutral at the start of the conditioning. It wouldn't normally produce the unconditioned response (UCR) but does so eventually because of it's association with the UCS eg. bell or lab tech
Classical Conditioning Main elements The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Only stimulus that consistently produces a particular response USC = food
Classical Conditioning Main elements The unconditioned response (UCR) A response which occurs automatically when the unconditioned stimulus is presented UCR = salivation
Classical Conditioning Main elements The conditioned response (CR) The behaviour which is identical to the UCR but is caused by the CS after conditioning CR = salivation in response to bell
Classical Conditioning Before conditioning Neural stimulus (NS) > no esponse Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) > unconditioned response (UCR)
Classical Conditioning During conditioning (acquisition) Conditioned stimulus (CS) + Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) repeated > Unconditioned response (UCR)
Classical Conditioning After conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS) > conditioned response (CR)
Classical Conditioning Extinction UCS without CS = no CR. When the UCS is no longer presented along with the conditioned stimulus eventually the CS becomes meaningless and CR stops
Classical Conditioning Spontaneous recovery Extinction has occurred, rest period takes place. When CS reintroduced, CR appears, but is weaker then first conditioned
Classical Conditioning Stimulus generalisation Organism will respond by producing a CR to stimuli that are similar to the CS. eg. dogs in Pavlovs experiment would salivate to a bell or a chime or a whistle
Classical Conditioning Stimulus discrimination Organism only responds to the condition stimulus and no other stimuli. eg. dog gets excited for only a certain bell
Operant conditioning Learning process by which the likelihood of a particular behaviour occurring is determined by consequences of that behaviour
Operant conditioning Theory Behaviour operates on the environment and our behaviour is instrumental in producing the consequences (rewards/punishments)
Operant conditioning Operant A response (or set of responses) that occurs in the absence of any stimulus and acts upon the environment in the same way each time
Operant conditioning Antecedent (stimulus) The environmental stimulus that precedes the relevant behaviour and initiates the consequence
Operant conditioning Behaviour (response) Voluntary activity that has an effect on the environment
Operant conditioning consequence The environmental event that follows the behaviour
Operant conditioning Effect on future behaviour Reinforcement (positive or negative) increases the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated. Punishment decreases the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated
Operant conditioning Reinforcement Any stimulus (event or action) that subsequently strengthens or increases the likelihood of the response (behaviour) that it follows. The reinforcer comes after the response and makes things stronger. Both pos and neg are desired
Operant conditioning Reinforcement Positive Positive reinforcer: stimulus that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a desired response by providing a pleasant or satisfied consequence. eg. good grades
Operant conditioning Reinforcement Negative Negative reinforcer: a stimulus that strengthens the response by reduction, removal, or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus. The behaviour that removes an unpleasant stimulus and is strengthened by the consequence. eg. lose weight
Operant conditioning Punishment Punisher An unpleasant stimulus that when paired with a response weakens the response or decreases the rate of responding over time
Operant conditioning Punishment Positive Delivery of a stimulus following an undesired behaviour. eg. hitting a child after they swear
Operant conditioning Punishment Negative (response cost) Removal of a valued stimulus, whether or not is caused the behaviour. Often referred to as response cost eg. If you dink drive, you lose your license
Operant conditioning Factors affecting reinforcement Order of presentation Reinforcement needs to occur after the desired response, not before! So they organism associates the reinforcement with the behaviour
Operant conditioning Factors affecting reinforcement Timing Reinforcers need to occur as close in time to the desired response as possible
Operant conditioning Factors affecting reinforcement Appropriateness of the reinforcer For a stimulus to be a reinforcer, it must provide a pleasing or satisfying consequence for its recipient
Operant conditioning Stimulus generalisation Occurs when the correct response (behaviour) is made to another stimulus which is similar to the stimulus (antecedent) for which a consequence is obtained
Operant conditioning Stimulus discrimination Organism performs the behaviour to a stimulus (antecedent) for which a consequence is obtained but not for any other similar stimuli
Operant conditioning Extinction The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of responding (behaviour) after a period of non-reinforcement/non-punishment. It occurs after termination of the consequnce
Operant conditioning Spontaneous recovery After a rest period (extinction) occurs, the response/behaviour is again shown, in the absence of a consequence
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Common features Acquisition process: a response is conditioned or learned. Extinction: of the learned response can occur and interrupted by spontaneous recovery. Stimulus generalisation or discrimination can occur. Both occur as a result of association between 2 events
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Role of the Learner CC: Learner is passive and no control over the learning process. OC: Learner is active and have to do something to yield a consequence and have some sort of control over the learning process
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Timing of the stimulus CC: The response depends on the presentation of the UCS occurring first. Need to be presented closely together. OC: The response occurs first, then comes the reinforcer or the punishment. Can sometimes be a time difference between the 2 stimuli
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Nature of the response CC: Reflexive, involuntary. OC: Usually voluntary, but can be involuntary too
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Effect of partial reinforcement CC: Likely to weaken association between UCS & CS, lessens response rate. OC: Strengthens and increases response rate, related to schedule of reinforcement
Comparing classical and operant conditioning Acquisition CC: association of two stimuli (CS & UCS) provides basis of learning. OC: association is with an operant response to a stimulus and a consequence that follows (behaviour)
Observational learning Albert Bandura theorist. Modelling is not totally separate from conditioning. Both OC and CC can occur vicariously. Observational learning involves being controlled indirectly by observing someone else's conditioning.
Observational learning Vicarious conditioning Individual watches another person performing a behaviour, then behaves the same way, or refrains from the behaviour accordingly (eg. I watch Jamie step over a hole when walking ahead of me so I do the same)
Observational learning Vicarious reinforcement Increases the likelihood of the observer behaving in a similar way to the model (eg. I ask a question in class and get praised so more likely for other kids to ask a question)
Observational learning Vicarious punishment Occurs when the likelihood of an observer performing a particular behaviour decreases after seeing a model get punished (eg. I watch my brother get yelled at for eating all the cookies so I don't eat all the cookies too)
Observational learning Social learning theory When observers pay attention to something going on around them, they may make cognitive representations. What they have learned is not a response but a mental representation of a response
Observational learning Generalised We can learn by watching and listening to someone . Can include: physical routines, socially appropriate behaviours, & emotional responses. Occurs when someone uses observation of another persons actions and their consequences to guide future actions
Observational learning Process Attention In order to learn through observation, we must first pay. Influenced by motivation, characteristics, distractors. More likely to watch model when perceived as liked, similar in nature, attractive, familiar
Observational learning Process Retention Observer must be able to make a mental representation of models behaviour. Step by step format. The more meaningful you make the image, the more accurately you can replicate the behaviour
Observational learning Process Reproduction The observer must have the ability to perform the action. Reproduction is restricted by physical limitation
Observational learning Process Motivation/reinforcement Learner must want to perform the action. Teachers should encourage learner to repeat behaviour. If the model receives positive reinforcement, then this will increase the likelihood that the observer will repeat behaviour
Classical Conditioning Little Albert The lead up Watson & Rayner (1920). Intentionally conditioned an emotional response. Aim: to test the belief that fear can be acquired through CC. Albert B was 11 months old, was placid, and capable of producing fear response
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Initial and first procedure The fear response was not shown when the rat was in Alberts reach. Experimenters struck a hammer on a steel bar making a loud noise. This was repeated until Albert cried uncontrollably. They repeated this randomly over 17 days
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Second Procedure (one week later) Loud noise was sounded every time Albert went near the rat. After multiple pairings (7) Albert would cry, show fear, and move away from the rat. Conclusion was that he conditioned a response
Classical Conditioning Little Albert The elements NS/CS: white lab rat UCS: loud noise UCR: fear response at loud noise CR: fear of rat
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Conditioning Before: NS (white lab rat) -- no response. UCS (loud noise) -- UCR (fear of loud noise) Acquisition: CS (white lab rat) -- UCS (loud noise) repeated -- fear of loud noise After: CS (white lab rat) -- CR (fear of white lab rat)
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Key terms Conditioned emotional response An emotional reaction that is said to occur when the autonomic nervous system produces a response to a stimulus that did not previously elicit that response
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Key terms Stimulus generalisation Little Albert cried and was fearful at stuffed toys, cotton wool, and other small animals
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Debriefing This did not occur as Little Albert's mother left her job at the clinic, other psychologists have stated they had the opportunity but did not use it
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Voluntary participation Mother was not given an explanation of the experiment, and she may have not volunteered her son
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Confidentiality Little Albert's face appears in videos and textbooks, however his actual name has remained confidential
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Informed consent Mother was not fully aware about the aims of the experiment; this is not clear though
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Withdrawal rights Mother may not have been aware of these rights; again, this is not clear. No one was able to advocate for his wellbeing
Classical Conditioning Little Albert Ethical considerations Lasting psychological and physiological harm May have been more vulnerable to psychological harm (due to obsessive thumb sucking), and the response was never extinguished; it is reasonable to assume he suffered long term. Mother noticed he cried about tissues and white blankets
Experimental methods Matched participant, repeated measures and individual groups design
Experimental methods Matched participant Each participant in one condition 'matches' a participant in another condition. A - groups are quite even, variables are constant throughout the conditions, eliminating confounding variables. D - pretesting, not very accurate
Experimental methods Independant groups Participants randomly allocated to either e or c group. A - experiment can be completed once, no order effects. D - large number of participants needed, less control over participant variables
Experimental methods Repeated measures Each participant involved in C and E group. A - strict control over participant variables, D - order effects, participants may have practised the task or gained knowledge, can become bored or fatigued, takes longer time
Created by: emmawalton05
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