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JOUR3552:Midterm Rev

Midterm review

MUDs (1980s) Multi-User Dungeon; fuels counterculture mentality of 1980s
MOOs (1990s) MUD object oriented; more like a game (RPG-esque games)
WELL - Whole Earth ‘Lectronic Link; founded in 1985 in San Francisco as a community of counterculture activists (dating, social discussions, ways to meet people, etc.) - online hippies? Still operates today (
AOL America Online; one of the early pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s, and the most recognized brand on the web in the United States
USENET much like Reddit; founded in 1979 but “mainstream” in the 1980s. Grew from 3 sites in 1979 to 11,000 in 1988. Unix-based
IBM (International Business Machines) - IBM PC first launched in 1981, and it soon became an industry standard
Microsoft entered the operating system (OS) business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS that solidified the company's dominance. Despite having
Apple founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak in 1975. In 1977, Apple II was introduced for $1200, and in 1984 the Apple Macintosh was launched, serving as a consumer-based computer option
Homebrew “computer nerds.”hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California, which met from March 1975 to December 1986, and played an influential role in the development of the microcomputer revolution and the rise of the Silicon Valley industrial complex
Bill Gates founder of Microsoft; launched the Browser Wars in 1995 with the launch of Internet Explorer against Netscape (Internet Explorer tied to Windows OS, Netscape (launched by Marc Anderssen and Jim Clark; more open-source))
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founders of Apple
Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn Vint Cerf,“Father of the Internet,” co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. 1997, President Bill Clinton presented the U.S. National Medal of Technology for founding and developing the Internet
Tim-Berners Lee developed the WWW protocols in 1991 (hypertext and the personal computer and the network)
Economics and Political Economy of the WWW Interconnection between income and wealth, law and government, production and trade, and power (?). Mass media can influence the public sphere (networked info environment can correct for perceived abuses)
Arab Spring (2010) huge revolts Middle East Africa. Communication decentralized mobile connectionsfew social media, but has access to a mobile phone; 2011, protests commenced in Tahrir Square, Egyptian police shut down state access to Internet/SMS/specific access to DNS
mumsnet UK-site; “mom’s social media,” aka mommy bloggers. Had huge influence on UK news and media (politics) → influencers → leads to discussions like “who should be on the school board?” which quickly turns political
Sinclair focus on the must-carry (must air on TV) of “Stolen Honor - Wounds that Never Heal” about John Kerry’s military record - collective action had a huge impact and dropped stock price significantly
Diebold voting systems; mass internet tech. Disclosure of Diebold’s electronic voting machines . Openly available via a Diebold website, discovered by a journalist. Released publically with a call to comment on the files
@fuckjerry Internet memes often without the credit or consent of the author.building a profitable empire on a foundation of stolen content
#fuckfuckjerry over 250,000 unfollows of the account across the span of the campaign’s first few days,
The political economy of search network topology huge for websites → how sites are found by Google (Google follows inbound/outbound links, rank sites by popularity and page rank); key driver for political movements
The political economy of search cont. Difficult for smaller websites → pay Google for keyword search; ask other sites to feature them; top search results prioritized to partners of Goocomplexity landscape (Google likely won’t ever find many sites because of too many other sites in-between)
service/retail based low for transaction costs/high fixed costs (Amazon paid $500 million up-front but almost no per-transaction cost; Amazon now building alliances)
information-based bakbon internet; spensive to producecheapreproduce,but the average costhigh Encyclopedia Britanica = $1600; 1999 = free onlineWiki’s busines = no modeldonatinsFBrelies on ads; content not expensive to produce=user-createdFB mobiads most profit
eGovernment and governments moving online CDC, USAJOBS, taxes)
Digital democracy revolutionary vs. evolutionary; digital allows for efficiency and cost savings, keeping pace with societal changes, customer-centric focus, availability/accessibility, efficiencies (fewer silos), enhanced security → privacy?
The challenges of governments adopting online Lack of talent (they lack tech guys like ya boii here), bureaucracy is EXTREMELY large with so many divides between state and federal governments (government is institutionalized), flow of money
PRISM and its implications NSA technology used to collect data from companies like Facebook and Microsoft for things like email, VOIP, phone, video, etc. Leaked by Edward Snowden
GDPR in EU, to attempt to regulate access; affects a global level (unable to access Chicago Tribune in EU countries). A lot of US sites adopted these regulations so they didn’t have to make multiple sites (one in compliance with GDPR and one not in compliance
UK Digital Culture and Sports Committee report findings report released on 14 February 2019; disinformation and “fake news.” Analyzed Facebook’s role in data leak to Cambridge Analytica (a donor to Trump’s campaign), as well as other scandals - Aggregate IQ also involved in scandal
whitelisted Facebook provided ongoing access via “whitelisted” (gives access to user’s friends’ data) accounts to key partners; privacy not clear -uk digital culture and sports committee report
Leptokurtic curve thin and sharp, quick
“Day 1 effect” 1st day =crucial it will pass or fail. downsidea lot of petitions go unnoticed; 4th Estate (the press) critical by picking up stories, and 5th Estate (the people) may not get access to things that deserve attention. Also, attention tends to fade fast
80/20 rule 20% of companies own 80% of the wealth, but today (power law), it’s more like 99/1
How things go viral? day 1 effect, 80/20 rule, leptokurtic curve--but really it is a combination of these, and it is not a copy and paste, I mean noone can replicate it as straight a rule.--things go viral in differentways
Vikileaks case C30 legislation (in Canada) headed by Vick Towse (public safety minister) used to target child porn at the cost of online privacy - wanted to gather user data without a warrant. These 3 sites fought back; when act was proposed
vikileaks continued Towse had a lot of his information leaked by Vikileaks (e.g. his divorse court proceedings); #tellvickeverything on Twitter, where people would literally tell Vick everything (e.g. “I showered today”); scrutiny in press of Canadian government
vikileaks con continuedd no due-process without warrant, lack of privacy. Coalition government in Canada (coalition of parties to gather majority; i.e. Democratic = 48%, Green Party = 3% - together = 51%, aka the majority)
Thai silk industry workers kept isolated from rest of the hierarchyThai government wanted to give workers technology so they have knowledge, but the women were tired from working so they didn’t even know what their fabric was used for and didn’t wa
thai silk industry continued nt any extra responsibilities. Why? Information overload (for workers), not trained with technology, just giving them tech won’t change how they work (can lead to collective action → group enabled coordination to work collectively)
Collective action cordinated action and thinking towards a common goal; multiplebenefit actin togetr Olson argued that the main flaw with this is free-riding. democracy, the greatest worry is that the majrity will exert tyranny over the minority (e.g. Occupy Wall Street
collective action cont. Central to this issue is the notion of a “public good”Non-excludable (can’t keep people out); nonrivalrous (no competition)Challenge of positive externalities - other companies receive a benefit or use your message against you ( anti-Occupy Wall Street)
CoNNective action sociological approach; few or no organizations involved; lots of tech and social media (e.g. e-petition). You often only get inner-group communications (e.g. users talking to users) and this leads to fragmentation;
CoNNective action Cont. no real discussion between groups (e.g. between commentary/opinion and individual accounts). Face-to-face communication is low (e.g. you may have 400 Facebook friends but only actually see 20 of them twice a year or more
roots of misinformation and fake news people didn’t want to acknowledge they binge drink or underage drink.As people interact with one another, factors compound and individuals’ mindsets change their perceptions of who drinks and who binges
Scale-free how the Internet actually is; 4-6 hops between anyone/nodes
Small worlds most nodes are neighbors of each other but 1-2 hops is all that separate each other; think of it like airplane travel
Contagion and how ideas spread through networks Social influence occurs when one behavior/opinion is affected by another; possible in the workplace, universities, online, etc. It has a huge influence on social life (e.g. the 2012 Mayoral election in the UK - FBand Twitanalys state a 54%
Contagion COntinued ; serch correlates political activity) → tends to mirror popular vote, not electoral college (in US) Social behavior and misinformation are contagio
Propensity to believe misinformation Average American was exposed to 1-3 stories from known publishers of fake news during the month before the 2016 election Fake news is fabricated information that mimics news media content in form but not in organizational process/content
Social bots fake/computer accounts that mimic human activity); depending on level of bot exposure you have, your point of view may be skewed. Super easy to program
India and WhatsApp:“quick-forwarding” disabled, no change to privacy and security of WhatsApp Rainpada (5 men murdered india); WhatsAppmobile payments market @ $1 trillion by 2023. VOIP and cross-platform messaging service;end-end encryption → secure messages (not sender/receivers). Peer-peer payment service in India;towards cryptocurrency
Trolling Jonathan Lee Riches (“professional troller”) Early “phone phreaker” → Sandy Hook Massacre (pretended to be the shooter’s uncle) → Jews for Trump. Imprisoned in 2003 for wire fraud; filed thousands of lawsuits from prison
Russian Misinformation Black Matters US had accounts on all social media sites linking posts across platforms to increase power. Using Paypal allowed group to solicit donations and organize real-world protests and direct online traffic to Russian-controlled sites
Valez, Macedonia hundreds of fake websites used to create political turmoil for ad revenue on Facebook in regards to 2016 election for POTUS; made many false stories that originated in Valez (e.g. “Pope Francis endorses Trump”)
Created by: Rose0807
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