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Public Speaking

Chapters 5- 10

QuestionAnswer
5 stages of Listening Receiving (Sensing) Interpreting Evaluating Responding Memory (remembering)
Receiving (sensing) taking in (or not) all the stimuli that you sense (what you hear, see, smell, etc...
Interpreting Supplying meaning to the messages you have sensed
Evaluating When you judge the message. Like vs dislike, agree vs disagree.
Responding When you give any type of feedback.
Memory (remembering) When you decide weather or not to retain any of the stimuli that you have sensed.
Keys to Listening Recognize that we listen selectively
Situational Information How many will attend? Is it voluntary or required? What do they know about me or the topic? What are their expectations?
Demographical Information Age Gender Ethnic and cultural background. Education Occupation Socioeconomic status Religious affiliation
Psychological Information Where are their attitudes, beliefs, values and needs
Attitude A feeling of like, dislike, approval, or disapproval toward a person, group, idea or event.
Belief a perception of reality. The mental acceptance that something is true even if we can't prove it to be true.
Value A deep seated principle (often learned from family, school, or religion) that serves as a personal guideline for behavior.
Need A state in which some sort of unsatisfied condition exists.
How do you gather Situational, Demographical and Psychological Information? Observation Surveys and Questionnaires Interviews Review publishes sources Informants/Insiders
Audience Analysis Determine who is in the audience/gather information. This is accomplished through gathering Situational, Demographic, and Psychological information.
Supporting Material Primary Sources Secondary Sources Critically evaluate your source Record references as you go
Primary Sources Research - Original or Firsthand information Interviews Surveys Questionares
Secondary Sources Research - Produced by others Books Newspapers Journals Encyclopedias
Steps in selecting a topic Overall purpose Topic criteria General Topic Specific Topic General Purpose Specific Purpose Thesis Statement
Topic Criteria includes Something that fits the occasion or assignment Something you know about Something you find interesting Something the audience finds interesting Something the audience finds valuable (Brainstorming is a good exercise for generating topics)
Overused supports Explanation Statistics
Underused supports Instances Comparison Expert Opinions Fables, Saying, Poems and Rhymes Demonstrations
Explanation defines, gives more info, or instructs how to do something
Statistics numbers used to show relationships between items
Instances A specific case that is used to clarify, add interest and in some case prove a point. Instances can be factual or hypothetical
Comparison Clarifying by showing similarities between two or more items.
Literal Comparison Is items within the same category (comparing and catfish to a perch) Both are fish.
Figurative Comparison Items in a different category. (Comparing a boy to a fish)
Expert Opinions Information given by an expert that gives credibility to your speech.
Demonstrations Use objects or people to explain or clarify and idea by showing something.
Effective Internet Research include Library Printed and online sources Virtual Libraries Invisible web Be a critical consumer of information Distinguish among information, propaganda, misinformation, and disinformation Internet search tools (search engines, web directories)
Additional Effective Research include Beware of commercial searches Conduct smart searches Record internet searches carefully to avoid plagiarism.
Information Understandable data with the potential to become knowledge
Propaganda Information represented in a way that provokes a desired response.
Misinformation information that is not true or inaccurate. Not necessarily the result of deceit
Disinformation Information that has been deliberately falsified.
Created by: 3zimm
 

 



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