Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDS

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

QuestionAnswer
Infection means invasion (entry) and proliferation (rapid reproduction) of pathogens.
Pathogens are disease creators
Pathogens (disease creators) include: 1. Bacteria 2. Viruses. 3. Fungi 3. Fungi
Anti-infective medications classified to treat bacterial infections are called: antibiotics.
Antibiotics are effective against many types of bacteria.
Effective means successful
Antibiotics are not effective (successful) against any type of viral infection
For antibiotics to be effective against a bacterial infection they must be taken on time and until the prescription is completed.
Example: If the antibiotic prescription reads "trimox 250 mg po qid and there are 40 doses, the client must take the medication every 6 hours around the clock for 10 days.
If an antibiotic is not taken on time and/or the antibiotic prescription is not completed: The infection can return.
The microorganisms (microbes) causing the infection can develop resistance to that antibiotic.
Bacteria are identified by using a straining technique called gram staining.
Bacteria that stain pink are called: gram negative.
Bacteria that stain purple are called gram positive.
Antibiotics effective (successful) against many different types of bacteria are called broad spectrum antibiotics.
Some antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness (successfulness) of an influenza (flu) vaccination).
Sulfonamide Antibiotics: Sulfonamide antibiotics were the first chemical substance used to treat and prevent: bacterial infections.
Sulfonamide antibiotics are commonly referred to as: sulfa drugs.
Sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfa drugs) concentrate in the urine before excretion and are commonly prescribed (ordered) to treat UTIs which stand for urinary tract infections.
Medications classified as sulfonamide antibiotics include: 1. sulfadiazine.
Medications classified as sulfonamide antibiotics include: 2. Gantrisin (sulfisoxazole).
Medications classified as sulfonamide antibiotics include: 3. Bactrim and Septra (SMZ and TMP) which stands for sulfamethazole & trimethoprim.
Penicillin antibiotics: Penicillin is abbreviated: PCN
Penicillin (PCN) originates from a type of fungus called penicillium.
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotics include: 1. Amoxil + trimox (amoxicillin)
A medication classified as a penicillin antibiotic is called: 2. Principen (ampicillin)
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotics include: 3. Pfizerpen + Bicillin + Permapen (penicillin)
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 4. Ticar aka ticarcillin.
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 5. dicloxacillin
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 6. nafcillin
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 7. oxacilin
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 8. piperacillin
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 9. methicillin
Medications classified as penicillin antibiotic include: 10. Augmentin
Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacteria commonly found on the skin or in the nose.
In healthy individuals, staphylococcus aureus usually causes no problems or results in relatively minor skin infections.
An infection caused by staphylococcus aureus is commonly treated with penicillin (PCN) antibiotics.
Penicillin resistant bacteria produce an antagonistic enzyme against penicillin (PCN) called penicillinase
MRSA stands for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to the following penicillin antibiotics: methicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin and oxacillin.
The most common locations for MRSA are hospitals and nursing facilities
MRSA usually does not cause infection for those with a healthy immune system.
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 1. DM which stands for diabetes mellitus.
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 2. CA which stands for cancer.
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 3. AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 4. The very young and elderly.
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 5. Non-intact skin called open wound
Risk factors for a MRSA infection include: 6. Poor asceptic (no infection) technique.
A MRSA outbreak is abbreviated CAMRSA which stands for community associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
Outbreak means pathology (disease) that suddenly occurs in unexpected numbers in a limited area and then subsides (diminishes or disappears).
Outbreaks of CAMRSA occur more often where people share close quarters such as: 1. Schools. 2. Day care centers. 3. Gymnasiums.
The most effective technique to prevent transmission of MRSA is proper hand wishing
Transmission means spread
Streptococcus pneumoniae proliferation (rapid reproduction) can cause an inflammation of 1. The lungs called pneumonia.
Streptococcus pneumoniae proliferation (rapid reproduction) can cause an inflammation of 2. A middle ear (abbreviated OM) which stands for otitis media.
Streptococcus pneumoniae proliferation (rapid reproduction) can cause an inflammation of 3. A air-filled cavity within the cranium called sinusitis.
Proliferation means: rapid reproduction.
Streptococcus pneumoniae proliferation can cause an inflammation of: 4. The membranes (linings) surrounding the brain and spinal cord called meninges.
Infection caused by streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly treated with: penicillin (PCN) antibiotics.
PRSP stands for penicillin resistant streptococcus pneumoniae.
Cephalosporin Antibiotics. Cephalosporin antibiotics are related to the penicillin (PCN) antibiotics.
Cephalosporin antibiotics cause bacterial septa (walls) to break down.
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 1. Duricef 2. cefadroxil
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 3. Ancef 4. cefazolin
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 5. Keflex 6. cephalexin.
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 7. Ceclor 8. cefaclor
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 9. Spectracef 10. cefditoren
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 11. Cefotan 12. cefotetan
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 13. Mefoxin 14. cefoxitin
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 15. Cefzil 16. cefprozil
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 17. Ceftin 18. Zinacef
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 19. cefuroxime 20. Omnicef
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 21. cefdinir 22. Maxipime
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 23. cefepime 24. Suprax
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 25. celixime 26. Cefobid
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 27. cefoperazone 28. Claforan
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 29. cefotoxime 30. Vantin
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 31. cefpodoxime 32. Tazicef
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 33. Fortaz 34. Ceptaz
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 35. ceftazidime 36. Cedax
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 37. ceftibuten 38. Rocephin
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 39. ceftriaxone 40. Zeftera
Medications classified as cephalosporin antibiotics include: 41. ceftobiprole
MRSA is resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics except Zeftera (eftobiprole)
Many people who are allergic to PCN antibiotics are also allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics
A medication classified to prolong the therapeutic blood levels of penicillin antibiotics and cephalosporin antibiotics is called probenecid.
AMINOGLYCOSIDE ANTIBIOTICS Aminoglycoside antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat UTIs which stands for urinary tract infections
Medications classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics include: 1. Garamycin (gentamicin) 2. Kantrex
Medications classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics include: 3. kanamycin 4. neomycin
Medications classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics include: 5. paromomycin 6. streptomycin
Medications classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics include: 7. TOBRIL 8. Tobrex
Medications classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics include: 9. tobramycin
Aminoglycoside antibiotics can cause: 1. Nephrotoxicity which can lead to RF which stands for renal failure.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics can cause: 2. Ototoxicity which can lead to hearing loss.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics can cause: 3. Ataxia which means condition of no coordination.
TETRACYCLINE ANTIBIOTICS: Tetracycline antibiotics are broad spectrum which means they are effective against many different types of bacteria.
Medications classified a tetracycline antibiotics include: 1. tetracycline. 2. Vibramycin (doxycycline)
Medications classified a tetracycline antibiotics include: 3. oxytetracycline. 4. demeclocycline
Medications classified a tetracycline antibiotics include: 5. minocycline
MISCELLANEOUS ANTIBIOTICS Medictions classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include: 1. Zithromax Z-PAK (azithromycin)
Medications classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include: 2. Cipro (ciprofloxacin) can lose effectiveness if combined with fruit juices.
Medications classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include 3. Floxin. 4. Avelox
Medications classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include 5. Biaxin 6. Levaquin.
Medications classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include: 7. E.E.S. and Eryzole and Eryderm and Erye and EryPed and Erythromycin and Ery-Tab and Pediazole (erythromycin)
Erythromycin ophthalmic gtt are administered to treat bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the eyes of a NB which stands for newborn aka a neonate.
Medications classified as miscellaneous antibiotics include 8. Vancocin (vancomycin)
Vancocin (vancomycin) is commonly prescribed to treat infections caused by MRSA which stands for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
VRSA stands for vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
VRE stands for vancomycin resistant enterococcus.
ANTIVIRAL MEDICATIONS HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
The human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS which stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
The average window period for the HIV is three (3) to twelve (12 weeks)
The window period is the time between exposure to the HIV and detection with a blood test.
A person infected wit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit (spread) the virus to others during the "window period".
The average "window period" for the HIV is three to 12 weeks.
The average "incubation period" between exposure to the HIV and the appearance of AIDS is 2-10 years.
Diagnosis (Dx) of AIDS occurs when: 1. A blood test reveals (shows) a CD4 T lymphocyte count below 200.
Diagnosis (Dx) of AIDS occus when: 2. Microorganisms take advantage of a weakened immune system causing opportunistic infections (OI).
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: a. Inflammation of the lungs called PCP which stands for pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: b. Candidiasis which means fungal infection of the skin, oral cavity (thrush), bronchi, trachea (windpipe), esophagus, lungs, and vagina (yeast infection).
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: c. Bacterial pulmonary (lung) infections such as TB which stands for tuberculosis.
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: d. Herpetic stomatitis (inflammation of the mouth) caused by the HSV1 which stands for herpes simplex virus 1 aka cold sores (fever blisters)
Opportunistic infections (OI) associated with AIDS include: e. Cervical (uterine) malignancy (cancer) and lymphoma (lymphatic malignancies) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (skin malignancy)
Treatment for the HIV + AIDS includes: antiviral medications to reduce the virus' ability to proliferate which means rapid reproduction.
Antiviral medications to treat the HIV and AIDS are called highly active antiretroviral therapy abbreviated HAART
HAART (anti-HIV/AIDS medications) are commonly given in combination called an: AIDS cocktail
HAART (anti HIV/AIDS medictions must be taken faithfully every day to prevent the HIV from developing a resistance (defense) to the medications
A HAART medication classified as an antiviral medication to treat HIV/AIDS is called 1. Retrovir aka zidovudine or AZT
A HAART medication classified as an antiviral medication to treat HIV/AIDS is called 2. Epivir aka lamivudine.
A HAART medication classified as an antiviral medication to treat HIV/AIDS is called: 3. Sustiva aka efarinenz or EFV
Antiviral medications prescribed to treat the HIV/AIDS must be taken faithfully every day to prevent the HIV from developing a resistance
A medication classified to treat HIV/AIDS is called: Lithobid aka lithium
Lithobid (lithium) has a side effect (SE) of leukocytosis which means excessive white blood cells (WBC)
Lithobid (lithium) is also classified to treat BMD which stands for bipolar mental disorder aka MDI which stands for manic-depressive illness.
A medication classified as an antiviral against HSVI is called: 1. Zovirax aka acyclovir
HSVI stands for herpes simplex virus 1 aka cold sores (fever blisters)
A medication classified as an antiviral against HSVII is called: Zovirax aka acyclovir
HSVII stands for herpes simplex virus 2 aka genital herpes (STD)
The sequela (aftereffect) of a VZV (chicken pox) infection is abbreviated HZ which stands for: herpes zoster aka shingles
VZV stands for varicella zoster virus
A medication classified as an antiviral against HZ is called: 1. Zovirax aka acyclovir
HZ stands for herpes zoster aka shingles.
A medication classified as an antiviral against HZ is called 2. Valtrex
HZ stands for herpes zoster aka shingles
A medication classified as an antiviral against influenza A+B is called 1. Tamiflu
A medication classified as an antiviral against influenza A+B is called: 2. Xofluza
A medication classified as an antiviral against influenza A+B is called: 3. Relenza
ANTIFUNGAL MEDICATION Dermatophytes can cause fungal infections of the integument (skin or hair or nails)
Dermatophytosis means abnormal condition (proliferation) of dermatophytes.
Dermatophytes tend to proliferate (reproduce) outward on the skin producing a ring-like pattern, hence the name ringworm
Dermatophytosis means abnormal condition (proliferation) of dermatophytes aka tinea
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: 1. Tinea corporis aka body ringworm.
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: 2. Tinea pedis aka foot ringworm or athlete's foot
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: 3. Tinea cruris aka groin ringworm or jock itch.
Tinea cruris can be caused by a fungal infection called candidiasis (moniliasis) which means vaginal yeast infections and/or thrush (oral cavity).
Tinea cruris is aka groin ringworm or jock itch.
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: 4. Tinea capitis aka scalp ringworm.
Types of tinea (ringworm) include: 5. Tinea unguium aka onychomycosis which means abnormal condition of nail fungus.
Medications classified to treat dermatophytosis are called antifungals
A medication classified as an antifungal is called 1. Diflucan aka fluconazone
A medication classified as an antifungal is called: 2. Nizoral aka ketoconazole
A medication classified as an antifungal is called: 3. Fungizone aka amphotericin B
A medication classified as an antifungal is called: 4. Monistat aka miconazole
A medication classified as an antifungal is called: 5. Vagistat aka tioconazone
A medication classified as an antifungal is called: 6. Mycelex aka clotrimazole
INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS: Intravenous (IV) infusion means: introduction of fluid within a vein.
Intravenous (IV) infusion rate (amount) orders are usually expressed in mL/hr which stands for millimeters per hour.
The primary bag or bottle containing fluid, connecting tubing, and a flexible catheter inserted within a vein is called an intrvenous (IV) line.
A small secondary bag/bottle of medication connected to a primary intravenous (IV) line is abbreviated IVPB which stands for intravenous piggyback.
IV fluid administered (given) over several hours is called an intravenous (IV) drip.
Intravenous (IV) tubing has rubber stoppers to inject medications calld: ports
Intravenous (IV) infusion means introduction of fluid within a vein.
A medically rapidly injected into an IV port is abbreviated IVP which stands for: intravenous push.
An intravenous push (IVP) is aka a loading dose or bolus.
A very slow infusion (introduction) of intravenous (IV) fluid designed to prevent coagulation (clotting) of the intravenous (IV) catheter is abbreviated KVO which stands for: keep vein open
Keep vein open (KVO) is aka TKO which stands for: to keep open
Intermittent administration of intravenous IV medications and/or fluids through an intravenous (IV) catheter without tubing or continuous infusion is called a reseal or heparin lock (hel-lock)
Heparin is classified as an anticogulant
A computer that controls the amount of intravenous (IV) solution introduced is called an infusion pump
A computer allowing a client to administer (give) an intravenous (IV) analgesic (narcotic) as needed (prn) is abbreviated PCA which stands for patient controlled analgesia.
A catheter inserted into a peripheral vein and advanced to the superior vena cava for prolonged intravenous (IV) therapy such as antineoplastics (chemotherapy) is abbreviated PICC which stands for peripherally inserted central catheter
A catheter inserted into a large central vein for prolonged intravenous (IV) therapy such as hemodialysis (HD) is abbreviated CL which stands for central line.
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 1. D5W which stands for dextrose 5% in water.
Dextrose is one type of: sugar aka glucose.
Intravenous fluids (IV) include: 2. D10W which stands for dextrose 10% in water.
Intravenous fluids (IV) include: 3. D50W which stands for dextrose 50% in water
The salts of the body are called electrolytes (lytes)
Electrolytes (salts) include: 1. Na which stands for sodium (natrium)
Electrolyes (salts) include: 2. K which stands for potassium.
Electrolytes (salts) include: 3. Cl which stands for chloride.
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 4. NS and NSS which stand for normal saline solution aka 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl).
Saline means salt.
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 5. 1/2 NS and 1/2 NSS which stand for one half normal saline solution aka 0.45% sodium chloride (NaCl).
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 6. D5/NSS which stands for dextrose 5% and normal saline (NSS)
Normal saline solution (NSS) is aka: 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl).
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 7. LR which stands for lactated Ringer's.
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 8. D5/RL which stands for dextrose 5% with Ringer lactate.
Intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 9. Complete nutrition provided intravenously (IV) abbreviated TPN which stands for total parenteral nutrition aka hyperalimentation (hyperal)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) aka hyperalimentation (hyperal) includes the administration (giving) of a. Intravenous (IV) lipids aka Intralipid or Liposyn
Lipids are fats
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) aka hyperalimentation (hyperal) includes administration of b. Amino acids for the body to create protein.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) aka hyperalimentation (hyperal) includes administration of: c. Salts aka electorlytes (salts)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) aka hyperalimentation (hyperal) includes administration of: d. Dextrose aka glucose (sugar)
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) aka hyperalimentation (hyperal) includes administration of e. MVI which stands for multivitamin infusion
BLOOD PRODUCTS: Blood products such as whole blood are commonly measured in units U
Whole blood contains 1. Erythrocytes which are red blood cells (RBCs)
Whole blood contains: 2. Leukocytes which are white blood cells (WBCs)
Whole blood contains: 3. Thrombocytes which are clot cells aka platelets.
Whole blood contains: 4.The liquid portion of the blood containing blood products and clotting factors.
PRBC stands for packed red blood cells
Packed red blood cells are concentrated numbers of: erythrocytes (RBCs) and very little plasma.
FTP stands for: fresh frozen plasma
Dextran is a plasma volume expander.
Alb. stands for albumin which is a blood protein.
Cryoprecipitate refers to plasma with clotting factor(s).
Cryoprecipitate is used to treat the genetic coagulopathy called hemophilia.
Created by: bterrelonge
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards