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Chapter 5

Anatomy

TermDefinition
Cardiac/Heart Only muscle in the body of it's type. Functions involuntarily.
Anatomy Study of the organs and systems of the body.
Physiology Study of the functions of the organs and systems of the body.
Gross Anatomy Study of the structures that can be seen with the naked eye.
Histology Study of structures too small to be seen except through a microscope.
Cells, Tissues, Organs, Body Systems Building blocks of the human body.
Cells Basic units of life.
Protoplasm A colorless gel-like substance that contains water, salt and nutrients obtained from food.
Nucleus Control center of the cell.
Cytoplasm Production department of the cell.
Organells Perform most of the cells activities. Store food for growth as well as repair and restore the cell.
Cell Membrane Outer surface of the cell.
Mitosis Human cells are reproduce by dividing in half.
Metabolism Turns nutrients into energy for the body to store for later use.
Carbohydrates Bodies main energy source.
Anabolism and Catabolism 2 phases of metabolism.
Anabolism The process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.
Catabolism The process of breaking down larger molecules into smaller ones.
Epithelial Tissue Covers and protects body surfaces and internal organs.
Connective Tissue Supports, protects and holds the body together.
Nerve Tissue Carries messages to and from the brain and coordinates body functions.
Muscular Tissue Contracts when stimulated to produce motion.
Liquid Tissue Carries food, waste products and hormones.
Organs Separate body structures that perform specific functions, composed of 2 or more tissues.
Brain Organ that controls all bodily functions.
Eyes Organ of sight.
Heart A hollow, muscular organ that circulates blood throughout the body.
Lungs Supply the blood with oxygen.
Stomach and intestines Digest food.
Liver Removes toxic by products of digestion. Secrets bile, converts and neutralizes ammonia from the circulatory system to Urea.
Kidneys Eliminate water and waste products.
Skin Largest organ of the body, forms external protective layer.
Systems Group of organs that work together to perform one or more vital functions for the body.
Skeletal Physical foundation. Provides framework for the body. Consists of 206 bones of different shapes and sizes.
Muscular System that moves the body.
Circulatory System that circulates blood through the body.
Nervous system Sends and receives messages.
Digestive system Supplies nutrients to the body.
Excretory system Eliminates waste from the body.
Respiratory system Controls breathing.
Endocrine System that controls growth, health and reproduction.
Reproductive system Generates new life to perpetuate the species.
Integumentary System that covers and protects the entire body.
Osteology Study of bones
Bone Body's hardest structure. Composition is 2/3 miners matter and 1/3 organic matter.
Skull 2 sets of bones form this. Cranium (8 bones) and Facial skeleton (14 bones).
Frontal bone Extends from top of eyes to top of the head (forehead).
Parietal Bones Bones that form the upper sides of the head and the crown.
Occipital The bone that forms the back of the skull, indenting above the nape area.
Temporal bones Located on either side of the head, directly above the ears and below the parietal bones.
Spenoid Bone located behind the eyes and nose. Connects all the bones of the cranium.
Ethmoid Spongy bone between the eyes that forms part of the nasal cavity.
Mandible Largest bone of the facial skeleton, lower jaw.
Maxillae Two bones of the upper jaw
Zygomatic/Malar Two bones that form the upper cheek and the bottom of the eye socket.
Lacrimal Smallest 2 bones of the facial skeleton and form the front part of the inner, bottom wall of the eye socket.
Nasal 2 bones which join to form the bridge of the nose.
Cervical Vertebrae Seven bones that form the top part of the spinal column.
Hyiod U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the muscles of the tongue. It is the only bone not connected to another.
Metacarpals Bones of the hand.
Thorax/Chest Bony cage made up of the spine, thoracic vertebrae, sternum and 12 ribs.
Clavicle Bone that runs across the chest between the shoulders.
Decollete Upper chest area
Scapula/Shoulder blade 2 large flat bones extending from the middle of the back up to the joint where they attach to the clavicle.
Myology Study of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles.
40 Percent of bodies weight that the 500 large and small muscles in the body account for.
Anterior Toward the front.
Posterior Toward the back.
Superioris Located above or is larger.
Inferioris Located below or is smaller.
Levator Lifts up.
Depressor
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