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Chapter 6

Electricity and Electrical Equipment, Pivot Point Esthetics

TermDefinition
Electricity A form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical changes.
Electric current/Modality Flow of electricity along a conductor.
Conductor Material that allows electricity to flow through it easily.
Load Technical term for any electrically powered appliance.
Insulator Material that does not allow the flow of electrical current.
Amp/Ampere A unit of electric strength.
Volt/Voltage Unit of electric pressure.
Ohm Unit of electrical resistance.
Watt Measure of how much electrical energy is being used.
Electrotherapy Application of electrical currents during treatments to the skin.
Direct current/DC Constant current in which electrons move at an even rate and flow in only one direction.
Alternating current/AC Rapid oscillating cycle that alternates back and forth, allowing electrons to flow first in one direction and then in the other.
Converter Changes DC to AC.
Rectifer Changes AC to DC.
Hertz rating Indicates the number of cycles per second that a generator alternates current.
Amp rating Indicates the number of electrons flowing through a particular line.
Milliampere 1/1000 of an ampere. This is the power that is put out by skin care equipment.
Ohm's rating The resistance to the motion of the electrons through a conductor.
Kilowatt 1,000 watts
Kilowatt hours Rate at which energy is measured.
Underwriters Laboratory/UL rating Means the appliance has been certified to operate safely under the conditions specified in the instructions.
Closed path/circuit A path on which electricity leaves the source and travels to an appliance in order to power it.
Open circuit Incomplete circuit through which electricity will not flow, break in a closed path/circuit.
Overload More current flows than the line is designed to carry.
Rheostat A device that indicates the amount of current flowing through equipment and regulates the amount with a dial or knob.
Short circuit A connection that allows current to take the path of least resistance. Can happen anytime a conductor comes in contact with wire carrying current to a load.
Power box Carefully insulated location where the electric current enters a building from a generator or power plant.
Fuse A safety device with a thin metal strip that will melt if too much current passes through a circuit preventing electrical wires from overheating.
Circuit breaker Breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs.
Grounding wire Wire in the 3-wire system running directly to the ground that protects you when operating certain kinds of appliances.
Electrical shock When electrical current passes through the body.
Local shock Passes through a small part of the body, and can cause burns and muscle contractions.
General shock/electrocution Passes through the nervous system. Causes heart to stop, breathing to cease, and muscles to convulse.
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) A device that interrupts and de-energizes an electrical circuit to protect a person from electrocution. Should be installed anywhere water and electricity could come into contact with each other.
Fire Extingusher use (PASS) Pull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep
Electrotherapy treatments Facial treatments that require the use of electricity.
Galvanic current/Ionization The only constant direct current (DC) of low voltage and high amperage that produces an electrochemical effect.
Phoresis Process of forcing water-based solution into the skin with Galvanic current.
Anaphoresis Process of infusing an alkaline (negative) product into the tissues from the negative pole toward the positive pole. Often used in desincrustation.
Cataphoresis Process of fusing an acidic (positive) product into deeper tissues using galvanic current from the positive pole toward the negative pole. Often used in iontophoresis.
Polarity Having opposite poles in an electric current.
Poles Charged ends of magnets.
Electrode A conductor through which electricity enters or leaves an object, substance, or region. Device used to bring current from appliance to clients skin.
Cathode Negatively charged electrode.
Anode Positively charged electrode.
Polarity changer Switches current from negative to positive or positive to negative.
Desincrustation A form of anaphoresis; process used to soften and emulsify grease deposits (oil) and blackheads in the hair follicles.
Iontophoresis A treatment in which the deeper layers of the epidermis are built up or nourished.
Active electrode Term given tot he electrode held by the skin care specialist.
Inactive electrode Term given to the electrode held by the client.
High Frequency current/Tesla current Alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat.
High Frequency treatment Uses glass electrodes filled with gas-either argon or neon. Argon produces a purple color, sometimes called violet-ray. Both gasses have similar effects, argon is typically for acne-type lesions. Neon for normal/oily skin.
Sparking/spark gap More oxygen allowed into the area therefore more O-Zone is produced, argon gas electrode is used.Never lift electrode more than 1/4 inch from the skin.
Direct High Frequency Skin care specialist holds the electrode directly on the face, produces ozone to create germicidal effect and in oily skin types it also creates a drying effect that kills bacteria and eliminates excess sebum.
Indirect High Frequency Client holds electrode while esthetician gently massages the skin. Used to relax the client, aid in the penetration of product and assist in massage for mature skin.
Faradic Current An alternating current (AC) that is interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction.
Direct Faradic Method of application in which the esthetician places both electrodes on the clients skin, being certain that the electrodes never touch.
Indirect Faradic Esthetician wears wristband with moistened electrode and client holds electrode to provide a continuous flow of current.
Sinusoidal current Alternating current (AC) that produces a mechanical effect, similar to the way Faradic Current produces muscle contractions.
Removal of jewelry, metal items and alcohol based products Precautions to take before starting an electrotherapy treatment.
Light therapy Produces beneficial effects on the body through the use of light rays or waves.
Wavelength Distance from the peak of one light wave to the peak of the next.
Electromagnetic spectrum Range of all wavelengths that can be produced by radiant energy.
Visable light Portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
White light Referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible rays of the spectrum.
Prism 3 sided glass object which can be used to breakdown white light into its individual wavelengths.
Fluorescent light A economical and long lasting light source can create "blue" tones or "cool" casts.
Incandescent light Provided by an ordinary light bulb and produces red or warm tones. It creates the closest substitute for natural sunlight.
Invisable light Wavelengths of light that cannot be seen by the human eye.
Infrared rays Invisible rays slightly longer than the wavelengths that produce the visible light rays seen as the color red. Produces heat and can penetrate all layers of the skin and thus affect muscle, bone, nerves and joints.
Ultraviolet rays Invisible rays slightly shorter than wavelengths that produce the visible light rays seen as the color violet.
Infrared/IR light treatment guidelines 5-15 minutes, Keep light at least 30" from body or face. Cover clients eyes.
Ultraviolet/UV Light Produces positive or negative effects, depending on exposure time. Small doses can help produce vitamin D. It is also a germicide and can kill bacteria that causes skin infections. However, over exposure can result in tissue destruction and skin cancer.
UVC rays Beyond the ozone and have little effect on skin. Shortest in length.
UVB Rays Penetrate lower layers of epidermis and stimulate melanin production. These are the rays that cause sunburn.
UVA rays Most frequently used in tanning booths. Take a longer time and dose to burn the skin but have the ability to penetrate beyond the epidermis to the dermis and destroy valuable protein substances, collagen and elastin fibers.
Ultraviolet/UL light treatment guidelines Skin should be cleansed first, place lamp at least 30" from skin. Initial exposure should be for 1 minute and then skin checked for reaction. 1-5 minutes of exposure time is recommended but it can be up to 15 minutes.
Conduction Transfer of heat via direct contact.
Convection Transfer of heat via liquid or gas.
Radiation Transfer of heat via a vacuum (empty space).
Electrochemical effects Created when electric current travels through a water-based solution and onto the body.
Magnifying/loupe lamp Provides light and magnification.
Diopter Measurement of the degree of magnification. Magnifying lamps in skin care centers typically come in 3, 5 and 10 diopters(30/50/100 times magnification).
Wood's Lamp Utilizes violet rays or black light and must be used in a dark room. Black light colorizes skin to indicate different conditions.
Skin Scope/Dermascope Elaborate magnifying mirror/light that incorporates a black light. Provides the most thorough analysis of the skin.
Facial steamer/facial vaporizer Machine that sprays warm, humid mist on skin to open follicles for cleansing. The mist is also believed to help eliminate toxins, increase blood circulation and improve cell metabolism.
Suction machine Miniature vacuum cleaner to aid in deep pore cleansing by drawing out dirt, impurities and sebum.
Spray machine Automated spraying device which can help achieve a more thorough cleansing or toning after extractions or suction.
Electric Pulverizer Spray/Lucas Spray A unique atomizer that allows for the application of various herbs, extracts or astringents.
Rotating brush machine Features a handheld attachment with a small round brush suitable for the face and body; used to slough dead skin cells and deeply, thoroughly cleanse the skin.
Microdermabrasion machine The exfoliation machine used to achieve a light resurfacing of the epidermis.
Electric mask Produces warm, moist heat at a comfortable temperature and is used to help soften the skin to aid in deep product penetration.
Cleaning electrodes A disinfectant solution should be used. never use alcohol as it is an electrical conductor.
Created by: BBLaird