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Chapter 7

Classical Conditioning A type of learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that is naturally produces a response
Learning The acquisition, from experience, of new knowledge, skills, or responses that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
Habituation A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in responding
Sensitization A simple form of learning that occurs when presentation of a stimulus leads to an increased response to a later stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus (US) Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
Unconditioned Response (UR) A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
Aquisition The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with a US
Conditioned Response (RS) A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
Second-Order Conditioning A type of learning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure
Extinction The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the US
Generalization The CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition
Discrimination The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
Biological Preparedness A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others
Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will repeat that behavior in the future
Law of Effect The principles that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tends to be repeated, and those that produce" an unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
Operant Behavior Behavior that an organism preforms that has some impact on the environment
Reinforcer Any stimulus or event that increases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
Punisher Any stimulus or event that decreases the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
Positive something that is added
Negative Something that was taken away
Fixed-Interval Schedule (FI) An operant conditioning principle whereby reinforcers are presented at a fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made
Variable-Interval Schedule (VI) A behavior is reinforced on the basis of an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement
Fixed-Ratio Schedule (FR) Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made
Variable-Ratio Schedule (VR) The delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses
Intermittent Reinforcement Whereby only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement
Intermittent Reinforcement Effect The fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better that those maintained under continuous reinforcement
Shaping Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior
Latent Learning A process in which something is learned, but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the futurer
Cognitive Map A mental representation of the physical features of the environment
Created by: Jmenday
Popular Psychology sets




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