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science chapter 8

physical science

TermDefinition
diamond the form of the element carbon in which atoms are arranged in a crystal structure
graphite a form of the element carbon in which each carbon atom is bonded tightly to three other carbon atoms in flat layers
fullerene a form of carbon that consist of atoms arranged in the shape of a hollow sphere
nanotube a form of carbon that consists of atoms in the form of a long hollow cylinder
organic compounds most compounds that contain carbon
hydrocarbon an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
structural formula a description of a molecule that shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms
isomers compounds that have the same chemical formula but different structural formula
saturated hydrocarbons a hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds
unsaturated hydrocarbons a hydrocarbon in which one or more of the bonds between carbon atoms is double or triple
substituted hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
hydroxyl group An____OH group, found in alcohols
alcohol a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups
organic acid a substituted hydrocarbon with one or more of the -----COOH group of atoms
carboxyl group A -----COOH group, found in organic acids
ester An organic compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid
polymer a large molecule in which many smaller molecules are bonded together
monomers one molecule that makes up the links in a polymer chain
proteins an organic compound that is a polymer of amino acids
amino acid one of 20 kinds of organic compounds that are the monomers of proteins
plastics a synthetic polymer that can be molded or shaped
composite a combination of two or more substances that creates a new material with different properties
carbohydrate an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
glucose a simple carbohydrate; the monomer of many complex carbohydrates
complex carbohydrate a long chain, or polymer, of simple carbohydrates
starch a complex carbohydrate in which plants store energy
cellulose a complex carbohydrate found in plant structures
lipids an energy-rich organic compound made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Fats, oils, and cholesterol are lipids
fatty acids an organic compound that is a monomer of a fat or oil
cholesterol a waxy lipid in animal cells
Nucleic acids a very large organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
DNA Deoxyribo nucleic Acid, one type of nucleic acid
RNA Ribonucleic acid, a type of nucleic acid
nucleotides an organic compound that is one of the monomers of nucleic acids
Created by: 088103