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NEUROLOGICAL MEDS

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

QuestionAnswer
NEUROLOGICAL MEDICATIONS: Chronic abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing seizures is called epilepsy aka a seizure disorder.
Chronic means persistent or recurring.
Seizures that cause convulsions are called grand mal seizures
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) include body stiffening called tonic phase followed by violent jerking called the clonic phase.
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are characterized (described) by: 1. LOC which stands for loss of consciousness. 2. Biting of the lingua aka tongue
Grand mal seizures (convulsions) are characterized by 3. Urinary incontinence which means loss of bladder control aka enuresis.
Characterized means described.
Seizures characterized (described) by a brief sudden amnesic lapse (failure) of awareness are called: petit mal seizures aka absence seizures.
Amnesic means memory loss
Petit mal seizures (absence seizures) are more common in children
A premonition of an impending seizure is called an aura
Premonition means forewarning
Impending means about to happen
Auras (premonitions) include: 1. A sudden sense of unprovoked fear.
Unprovoked means no cause
Auras include A deja vu experience which is a feeling that what's happening has happened before
Auras are forewarnings aka premonition.
Auras include: A sensation of a sudden or strange odor or taste.
The period of time after a seizure when the victim may experience disorientation (confusion) and somnolence is called the postictal state
Somnolence means sleepiness
Medications classified to treat epilepsy (seizures) are called antiseizure medications or antieleptic s or anticonvulsants.
A medication classified as an antiseizure medication is called Dilantin aka phenytoin.
Seizures are chronic (persistent) abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
A medication classified as an antiseizure medication is called phenobarbitol (phenobarb)
Seizures that cause convulsions are called grand mal seizures.
A medication classified as an antiseizure medication is called Lamictal
A medication classified as an antiseizure medication is called Keppra
Seizures characterized by a brief sudden amnesic (memory loss) lapse (failure) of awareness are called petit mall seizures aka absence seizures
A medication classified as an antiseizure medication is called: Topamax
Topamax is also classified to treat migraines and treat bipolar mental disorder (BMD)
Use of Topomax during gestation has been linked to birth defects such as: cleft labia (lip) and/or cleft palate.
Gestation means pregnancy
Seizure activity lasting longer than 10 minutes is called status epilepticus.
Seizures are chronic (persistent) abnormal electrical activity in the brain.
A medication classified to treat status epilepticus is called Diastat aka diazepam
ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative encephalopathy which means brain disease of advancing deterioration.
AD is characterized by behavioral changes and progressive loss of cognitive abilities called dementia
Cognitive abilities refer to comprehension (understanding), memory and judgement (reasoning).
A medication classified to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) is called Aricept
A medication classified to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) is called: Exelon
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized (described) by behavioral changes and progressive loss of cognitive abilities called dementia
A medication classified to treat AD is called Namenda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative encephalopathy which means brain disease of advancing deterioration
PARKINSON'S DISEASE: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive encephalopathy affecting movement.
Encephalopathy means disease condition of the brain.
Parkinson's disease is characterized by Hypomimia which means decreased facial expression aka a mask-like facial expression.
Involuntary (no control) shaking muscles called tremors or pill rolling.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized (described) by Hypertonia which means muscle rigidity (stiffness)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized (described) by Slobbering aka drooling
Medications classified to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) include: Duodopa Parcopa and Sinemet (compound (combination of) carbidopa and levodopa
A medication classified to treat Parkinson's disease is called Requip
Parkinson's disease is caused by deficiency of a chemical neurotransmitter in the brain called dopamine
A medication classified to treat Parkinson's disease is calle Mirapex
Mirapex is also classified to treat RLS which stands for restless leg syndrome
SLEEP MEDICATIONS: The inability to obtain adequate sleep is called insomnia
Medications classified to treat insomnia are called hypnotics
A medication classified as a hypnotic is Ambien
A medication classified as a hypnotic is Lunesta
A medication classified as a hypnotic is Rozarem
A medication classified as a hypnotic is Restoril aka temazepam
Medications classified as OTC hypnotics include Nytol Sominex
OTC stands for Over the counter
Benadryl (diphenhydraine) is classified as an antihistamine
A common side effect of many antihistamines is drowsiness
PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS Anxiety, nervousness and tension at a more intense level than normal is called neurosis (neurotic)
Anxiety means worry
Anxiety can be associaated with phobias such as Acrophobia - fear of heights. Arachnophobia - fear of spiders Agoraphobia - fear of open spaces Claustrophobia - fear of confined spaces
Spontaneous anxiety, anxiousness and tension at a more intense level than normal is called a panic (anxiety) attack.
Spontaneous no cause
Medications classified to treat neuroses are called sedatives or antianxiety medications or minor tranquilizers (SAM)
A medication classified as a sedative is called Xanax aka alprazolam
Anxiety, anxiousness, and tension at a more intense level than normal is called neurosis (neurotic)
A medication classified as a sedative is called Valium aka diazepam
Spontaneous (no cause) anxiety, anxiousnes and tension at a more intense level than normal is called a panic (anxiety) attack.
A medication classified as a sedative is called Librium aka chlordiazepoxide
A medication classified as a sedative is called Tranxene
Medications classified to treat neuroses are also called antianxiety medications or minor tranquilizers
A medication classified as a sedative is called Ativan aka lorazepam
Sedatives aka antianxiety medications or minor tranquilizers (SAM) can lose effectiveness if combined with caffeine. Caffeine is classified as a stimulant.
Psychosis can result in a false interpretation of sensory stimuli ("mirage") called an illusion
Psychosis is a psychiatric disorder characterized (described) by losing touch with realty.
Psychosis can result in a false belief called a delusion.
A false belief of possessing superior qualities (I am Jesus Christ) is called a delusion of grandeur
A false belief of being persecuted by an individual or group is called a paranoid delusion
Persecuted means harassed (tormented)
Psychosis can result in perception of something that does not exist called a hallucination
Perception means awareness
Seeing something that does not exist is called a visual hallucination
Hearing something that does not exist is called an auditory hallucination
Medications classified to treat psychoses are called MAN (pneumonic) major tranquilizers or antipsychotics or neuroleptics
Radical (extreme) mood swings from manic (restless high) to depressive (listless low) is abbreviated BMD which stands for bipolar mental disorder
Bipolar mental disorder (BMD) is also referred to as MDI which stands for manic-depressive illness
A medication classified as an antidepressant and treatment for bipolar mental disorder(BMD) is called
Psychosis is a psychiatric disorder characterized (described) by losing touch with reality.
A medication classified as an antipsychotic and treatment for bipolar mental disorder (BMD) is called Seroquel
Bipolar mental disorder (BMD) causes radical (extreme) mood swings from manic (restless highs) to depressive ( listless lows).
A medication classified as an antipsychotic and treatment for BMD is called Zyprxa
A medication classified as an antipsychotic and treatment for BMP is called Risperdal
Bipolar mental disorder (BMD) is also referred to as MDI which stands for manic-depressive illness
A medication classified as an antipsychotic and treatment for BMP is called Abilify
Abilify is also classified as an antidepressant
A neurological disorder characterized (described) by involuntary body movements (tics) and vocal noises is abbreviated TS which stands for Tourette's syndrome
Involuntary means uncontrollable.
A medication classified as an antipsychotic and treatment for Tourette's syndrome is called Haldol aka haloperidol
seeing something that does not exist is called a visual hallucination
A medication classified to treat bipolar mental disorder (BMD) is called Lithobid aka lithium
A medication classified to treat bipolar mental disorder (BMD) is Latuda
A mood disorder causing chronic (persistent) feelings of sadness and loss of interest is abbreviated MDD which stands for major depressive disorder
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is aka clinical depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized (described) by 1. Chronic (persistent) sadness. 2. Feelings of helplessness and/or hopelessness and/or worthlessness.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized (described) by 3. Lack of pleasure in any activity. 4. A feeling of wrongdoing called guilt.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized (described) by 5. Inability to obtain adequate sleep called insomnia. 6. Anorexia which means no appetite
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized (described) by 7. Thoughts of ending one's life called suicide
Medications classified to treat MDD are called antidepressants
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by chronic (persistent) sadness
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 1. Effexor
MDD is characterized by feelings of helplessness or hopelessness or worthlessness
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 2. Pristiq
Major depressive disorder 9MDD) is characterized (described) by lack of pleasure in any activity.
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 3. Lexapro
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 4. Paxil
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 5. Prozac
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called 6. Zoloft
Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil or Zoloft use during pregnancy increases the chances of birth defects such as: a. ASD which stands for atrial septal defect. b. VSD which stands for ventricular septal defect
Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil or Zoloft use during pregnancy increases the chances of birth defects such as: c. PPHN which stands for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (newborn)
Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil or Zoloft use during pregnancy increases the chances of birth defects such as: d. SB which stands for spina bifida
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called: Cymbalta. Cymbalta is classified as a treatment for OA which means osteoarthritis.
A medication classified as an antidepressant is called: Wellbutrin aka bupropion
Wellbutrin is also classified as a non-nicotine smoking cessation medication.
some antidepressants can cause suicidal tendencies in children and teens
Depression has been linked to a deficiency of omega 3 fatty acids found in fish.
A condition characterized by inattention (distraction) impulsivity, excessive motor activity (movement) is abbreviated ADHD which stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Impulsivity means acting before thinking
A medication classified to treat ADHD is called Focalin
A medication classified to treat ADHD is called Catapres/clonidine
Catapres is also classified as an antihypertensive and NNSC medication
The generic name for Catapres is clonidine
A medication classified to treat ADHD is caled Adderall
ADHD stands for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
SLEEP Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep.
Overwhelming means overpowering
A medication classified to treat ADHD and narcolepsy is called Ritalin/methylphenidate
A medication classified to treat ADHD and narcolepsy is called Concerta/methylphenidate
A medication classified to treat ADHD and narcolepsy is called Quillivant/methylphenidate
ALCOHOLISM A medication classified to treat alcoholism is called Antabuse
Alcoholism occurs when consuming alcohol causes problems wit family and/or employment and/or friends
Antabuse will not allow alcohol to be absorbed and mixing with Antabuse will cause weakness, chest pain, headache, anxiety, vertigo, blurred vision, profuse sweatiness, difficulty breathing, nausea and vomiting.
ANALGESICS Analgesic means pertaining to no pain
Analgesics are classified as narcotic analgesics or non-narcotic analgesics
Narcotic analgesics derived (obtained) from or act like opium are called opiates (opioids)
Narcotic analgesics can cause an addictive feeling of well being called euphoria.
Many analgesics function by raising the pain threshold (tolerance)
Common side effects (SE) of narcotic analgesics include a. N+V which stands for nausea + vomiting b. opioid induced constipation
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called Dilaudid
Narcotic analgesics derived from opium are called opiates
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called Demerol/meperidine
Narcotic analgesics can cause an addictive feeling of well being called euphoria
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called MS Contin and Roxanol/morphine sulfate`
Many analgesics function by raising the pain threshold (tolerance)
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called Nubain (no pain)
Analgesic means pertaining to no pain.
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called Zohydro ER/hydrocodone
Zohydro ER use is controversial because of a high risk of addiction (abuse)
One accidental dose of Zohydro ER can be fatal.
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called OxyContin/oxycodone
OxyContin is tamper resistant because when crushed for injection, it becomes inert aka inactive
A medication classified as narcotic analgesic is called Duragesic/fentanyl
A medication classified as narcotic analgesix is called codeine
Codeine is also classified as an antussive which means cough suppressant
A medication classified to treat narcotic (opium) addiction is called Suboxone
PYREXIA - FEVER Pyrexia means fever
Medications classified to reduce fever are called antipyretics
A medication classified as a non-narcotic analgesic and antipyretic is called Tylenol/acetaminophen/APAP
A medication classified as an acetaminophen (APAP) antagonist is called Acetadote
Antagonist (antidote) means a medication or drug that deactivates another medication or drug.
A medication classified as an anticoagulant, non-narcotic analgesic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatoryt drug and antipyretic is abbreviated ASA which stands for aspirin aspirin
Trade names for aspirin (ADA) include St. Joseph, Bayer, Ecorin
Aspirin (ASA) should not be administered (given) to children because of the risk of encephalopathy abbreviate RS which stands for Reyes syndrom
Encephalopathy means disease condition of the brain
Aspirin (ASA) is contraindicated wit anticoagulants because of a possible exaggerate effect called synergism
Contraindicated means inadvisable or unwise
Buffers (alkalotics) are administered to reduce stomach upset
Buffered aspirin (ASA) medications include Alka-Seltzer
Buffered aspirin (ASA) medications include Ascriptin
Buffers are alkalotics
Buffers (alkalotics) are administered to reduce stomach upset
Buffered aspirin (ASA) medications include Bufferin
Buffers include Al which stands for aluminum
Buffers include Mg which stands for magnesium
Buffers include CA which stands for calcium
Bufers include NaHCO3 which stands for sodium bicarbonate
Aspirin (ASA), acetaminophen, APAP, diphenhydramine and caffeine combination medications include Anacin maximum strength which contains aspirin + cafeine Bayer PM which contains ASA + diphenhydramine
Narcotic analgesics and non-narcotic analgesics are commonly combined to produce an exaggerated effect called synergism
Analgesic means pertaining to pain
A medication classified as a narcotic analgesic and non-narcotic analgesic is called Percodan/oxycodone + aspirin (ASA)
Medications classified as narcotic analgesics and non-narcotic analgesics include: Tylox, Roxicet and Percocet/oxycodone + acetaminophen.
A medication classified as a narcotic analgesic and non-narcotic analgesic is called Tylenol #3/codeine + acetaminophen (APAP)
Medications classified as a narcotic analgesic and non-narcotic analgesic is called: Vicodin, Lorcet/acetaminophen (APAP) + hydrocodone.
Medications classified as antipyretics + NSAID + non-narcotic analgesic is called Motrin and Advil/ibuprofen
Medications classified as antipyretics + NSAID + non-narcotic analgesic is called Aleve and Naprosyn/naproxen
Medications classified as antipyretics + NSAID + non-narcotic analgesic is called Celebrex/celecoxib
Motrin or Advil or Celebrex use after myocardial infarction (MI) can increase the risk of CVD which stands for cardiovascular disease
The generic name for Motrin or Advil is ibuprofen
The generic name for Celebrex is celecoxib
MIGRAINES A migraine is a chronic (recurring), severe, commonly temporal headache (HA) accompanied by N+V which stands for nausea and vomiting.
A migraine is a chronic (recurring), severe, commonly temporal headache (HA) accompanied by Phonophobia which means sensitivity to sound Photophobia which means sensitivity to light
Migraines appear to be precipitated by vasodilation of the intracranial arteries
Precipitated means caused
Vasodilation means increased diameter (lumen) of the arteries
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Imitrex
A migraine is a chronic (recurring), severe, commonly temporal headache.
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Maxalt
A migraine can be accompanied by phonophobia which means sensitivity to sound
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Treximet
A migraine can be accompanied by photophobia which means sensitivity to light
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Botox
Migraines appear to be precipitated (caused) by vasodilation (increased lumen) of the intracranial nerves
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Tenormin/atenolol
Tenormin (atenolol) is also classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Lopressor/metoprolol
Lopressor (metoprolol) is also classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Corgard/nadolol
Corgard (nadolol) is also classified as an antianginal and antihypertensive
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Inderal/propranolol
Inderal (propranolol) is also classified as an antianginal + antihypertensive + antiarrhythmic
A medication classified to treat migraines is called Calan/verapamil
Calan (verapamil) is also classified as an antianginal + antihypertensive + antiarrhythmic
ANESTHETICS Anesthesia means condition of no feeling or nervous sensation
General anesthesia involves LOC which stands for loss of consciousness
Anesthesia involving a small area of skin and adjacent tissue is called local anesthesia
Spinal anesthesia is injected into the space below the arachnoid matter called the subdural space
The subarachnoid space contains a clear liquid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord abbreviated CSF which stands for cerebrospinal fluid
Anesthesia that causes loss of consciousness (nervous sensation) to a region of the body is called a regional anesthesia aka a nerve block.
Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia injected into the space above the dura mater called the epidural space
Regional anesthesia a nerve block
A medication classified as a local anesthetic include: Xylocaine and Solarcaine/lidocaine
Xylocaine (lidocaine) is also classified to treat arrhythmias
A medication classified as an anesthetic is called Marcaine
A medication classified as an anesthetic is called Tetracaine othalmic
Ophthalmic means pertaining to the eyes
A medication classified as an anesthetic is called Novocain/procaine
Initial anesthesia causing LOC is called induction anesthesia
Initial means beginnin
LOC stands or loss of consciousness
Additional anesthesia to place the client in a coma is called general anesthesia
Coma means unconsciousness without response to stimuli
A medication classified as an induction anesthetic is called Etomidate
Induction anesthesia means initial (beginning) anesthesia causing loss of consciousness (LOC)
A medication classified as an induction anesthetic is called Propofol
Medication that block nerve impulses (signals) to the muscles causing paralysis are classified as neuromuscular blockers
A medication classified as a neuromuscular blocker is called Anectine/succinylcholine or "succs"
Neuromuscular blockers cause paralysis (no feeling and no movement)
A preoperative (preop) medication classified to decrease airway secretions is called atropine
Preoperative (preop) means before surgery
Neuromuscular blockers cause paralysis (no feeling and no movement).
Atropine is also classified to treat severe bradycardia.
Created by: bterrelonge
 

 



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