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14 Chapter 14 Heat

Thermal Energy and Heat

TermDefinition
Temperature _____ is a measure of the average KINETIC energy of the individual particles.
Kinetic Energy Energy from motion - moving objects, electricity, radiation, sound
Potential Energy Energy not moving - energy stored or from position - gravitational energy, chemical energy, elastic energy.
increases As the temperature of a thermometer increases, its volume ___ as the molecules move faster.
heat ____ is thermal energy moving from a warmer object to a cooler object. Always from HOT to COLD.
specfic heat The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of matter 1 degree Kelvin is called ___
without. A material with a high specific heat can absorb a great deal of thermal energy ___ a great change in temperature.
conduction In the process of _____ heat is transferred from one particle to another without the movement of matter. From atom to atom - heat through a spoon.
convection In ___ heat is transferred by the movement of fluids caused by changing density.
convection current The circular motion of heat caused by changing density is known as ___.
Radiaiton ___ is the transfer of electromagnteic (EM) waves. Only form of heat or energy transfer that can take place through EMpty outer space.
only If two objects have two different temperatures heat will ___ flow from the warmer object to the colder one.
conductor A ___ transfers thermal energy well. It is a physical property of metals.
insulator A material that does not conduct heat well is called an ____. Air is great for this since particles are far apart .
states Another word for forms.
Solid Fixed position, vibrates, Definite shape, definite volume, strong gravitational attraction describe ____,
liquid move around each other, fluid, definite volume, indefinite shape, takes shape of lower part of container.
gas high energy, very little gravitational attraction, indefinite shape, indefinite volume, compressible.
Plasma state of matter where electrons are free from nucleus (which we call positive nuclei at this point). Incredibly high energy. Largest state of matter in the universe. Found in starts.
melting The change of state from a solid to a liquid. Endothermic.
freezing The change of state from a liquid to a solid. Exothermic.
evaporation Vaporization that takes place only on the surface as a liquid changes to a gas state. endothermic.
boiling. The rapid vaporization that takes place below the surface and above the surface. Think B for below. endothermic.
vaporization The change of state from a liquid to a gas. Endothermic.
condensation A change from the gas state to the liquid state. Think drops of water on a cold can of soda. exothermic.
thermal expansion As thermal energy of matter increases, its particles spread out and the substance goes through a process known as ___.
heat engines ___ transform thermal energy into mechanical energy.
external In heat engines where the fuel is burned OUTSIDE the engine, are called ____ combustion engines.
internal In heat engines where the fuel is burned inside the engine, are called ____ combustion engines.
refrigerant A substance that absorbs and releases heat.