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Psychology 8

Chapter 8

TermDefinition
Cognition The way in which we use & store info in memory.
Knowledge Info stored in our long-term memory about the world & how it works.
Thinking The use of knowledge to accomplish some sort of goal.
Mental representation Memory traces that represent objects, events, people, and so on, that are not present at the time.
Cognitive map A mental representation of the environment.
Concept Mental category that contains related bits of knowledge.
Superordinate category The highest, most general level of a concept.
Basic level category The intermediate level of categorization that seems to be the level that we use most to think about our world.
Subordinate category The lowest level of categorization, which contains concepts that are less general & more specific than those at the basic level.
Formal concept Concept that is based on learned, rigid rules that define certain categories of things.
Natural concept Concept that develops naturally as we live our lives & experience our world.
Prototype Our concept of the most typical memory of the category.
Exemplar A mental representation of an actual instance of a member of a category.
Well-structured problem Problem for which there is a clear pathway to the solution.
Algorithm A method of solving a particular problem that always leads to the correct solution.
Heuristic A shortcut or rule of thumb that may or may not lead to a correct solution to the problem.
Ill-structured problem A problem for which an algorithm is not known.
Insight A new way of looking at a problem that leads to a sudden understanding of how to solve it.
Creativity The ability to combine mental elements in new & useful ways.
Functional fixedness Being able to see objects only in their familiar roles.
Mental set The tendency to habitually use methods of problem solving that have worked for you in the past.
Incubation A period of not thinking about a problem that helps one solve the problem.
Reasoning Drawing conclusions about the world based on certain assumptions.
Deductive reasoning Reasoning from the general to the specific.
Inductive reasoning Reasoning from specific to the general.
Decision making Making a choice from a series of alternatives.
Judgement The act of estimating the probability of an event.
Availability heuristic A heuristic in which we use the ease with which we can recall instances of an event to help us estimate the frequency of the event.
Representativeness heuristic A heuristic in which we rely on the degree to which something is representative of a category, rather than the base rate to help us judge if it belongs in the category.
Language A well-developed, syntactical verbal system for representing the word.
Cooing The vowel sounds made by infants beginning at 2 months.
Babbling The combos of vowel & consonant sounds uttered by infants beginning around 4 months.
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound in a language.
Morpheme The smallest unit of sound that has meaning in a language.
Overextension When a child uses one word to symbolize all manner of similar instances.
Underextension When a child inappropriately restricts the use of a word to a particular case. (ex. using the word cat to describe only the family cat.)
Telegraphic speech Two-word sentences that children begin to utter at 20-26 months.
Grammar The rules that govern the sentence structure in a particular language.
Pragmatics The rules of convo in a particular culture.
Whorfian hypothesis/linguistic relativity hypothesis The theory that one's language can directly determine or influence one's thoughts.
Intelligence Abilities that enable you to adapt to your environment & behave in a goal-directed way.
Mental age The age that reflects the child's mental abilities in comparison
Intelligence quotient (IQ) One's mental age divided by one's chronological age times 100.
Reliability The degree to which a test yields consistent measurements of a trait.
Validity The degree to which a test measures the trait that was designed to measure.
Cultural bias The degree to which a test puts people from other cultures at an unfair disadvantage because of the culturally specific nature of the test items.
Generalized intelligence (g) Charles Spearman’s notion that there is a general level of intelligence that underlies our separate abilities.
Crystallized intelligence Abilities that rely on knowledge, expertise, and judgement.
Fluid intelligence Abilities that rely on info-processing skills such as reaction time, attention, and working memory.
Multiple intelligences The idea that we possess different types of intelligence rather than a single, overall level of intelligence.
Triarchic theory of intelligence A theory that proposes that intelligence is composed of analytical, practical, and creative abilities that help us adapt to our environment.
Twin studies Research that compares specific traits of identical or fraternal twins to ascertain the relative contributions of genes and environment to our characteristics.
Identical twins Twins that developed from a single fertilized egg and share 100% of their genes.
Fraternal twins Twins that developed from two separate fertilized eggs and are no more genetically similar than normal siblings.
Created by: cpruett8