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NERVOUS SYSTEM

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

QuestionAnswer
Nerve cells are aka neurons
The portion of each neuron that conducts electrochemical impulses from one neuron to another is called an axon
Each axon is surrouned by a protective lipoprotein called a myelin sheath
An axon is: the portion of each neuron that conducts (carries) electrochemical impulses (signals) from one neuron to another.
Neurons with myelin sheaths allow electrochemical impulses to travel at: 200 miles/second
Neurons without myelin sheaths allow electrochemical impulses at: 1 foot/second
Impulses are: signals
A nerve disease that causes degradation of myelin sheath is abbreviated MS which stands for: multiple sclerosis
Degradation means to: decline (fail) degeneration (degenerate) or deterioration (deteriorate)
Nervous System Divisions The 2 major divisions of the nervous system are: 1. CNS which stands for central nervous system. 2. PNS which stands for peripheral nervous system
CNS consists of (contains) the: brain and spinal cord
The brain is located within the skull aka : the cranium
The spinal cord is located within the: spinal cavity
The PNS consists of all the nerves except the: brain and spinal cord
PNS stands for: peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system contains the neurons (nerve cells) that transmit (send) stimuli to the brain for interpretation (explanation) called: sensory nerve cells aka afferent neurons
Stimuli means: changes in the environment (surroundings)
Sensory (afferent) neurons allow perception of: 1. Touch (tactile) 2. Taste (flavor) 3. Smell (olfactory) 4. Hearing (auditory) 5. Sight (vision)
The peripheral nervous system contains the neurons that transmit impulses from the brain to the muscles of movement called: motor nerve cells aka efferent neurons
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are greatly influenced by a chemical neurotransmitter in the brain called: dopamine.
Voluntary means: You have control.
Involuntary reflex actions The part of the nervous system that functions automatically is abbreviated ANS which stands for: autonomic nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involuntary which means: you have no control.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 1. Ventilation aka breathing.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 2. Tussis aka coughing.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 3. Expulsion of air from the nose and oral cavity due to irritation of the nasal passages called sneezing.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 4. Quickly opening and closing your eyelids called blinking.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 5. Wave-like muscular contractions that push food along the GI tract called peristaltic activity or peristalsis.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 6. Stomach regurgitation aka vomiting.
Involuntary actions (reflexes) include: 7. Uterine contractions during labor and delivery (L & D).
Involuntary actions are: aka reflexes.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is divided into the: 1. Sympathetic division aka fight or flight. 2. Parasympathetic division aka rest and digest.
The sympathetic (fight or flight) division of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) utilizes a chemical neurotransmitter abbreviated NE which stands for: norepinephrine.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic response include: a. Tachycardia which means rapid or fast heart rate b. Tachypnea which is rapid fast breathing (ventilation).
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: c. Increased diameter (lumen) of the bronchi and bronchioles called bronhodilation.
Changes that occur during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: d. Increased diameter of the pupils called pupillary dilation.
Pupillary dilation will increase the VF which stands for: visual field.
Changes that happen during the sympathetic (fight or flight) response include: e. Shunting (redirecting) blood from the periphery (skin) to the brain, heart, lungs and the large muscles of the arms and legs causing a color change called pallor (paleness).
The parasympathetic (rest and digest) division of the ANS utilizes a chemical neurotransmitter abbreviated Ach which stands for: acetylcholine.
ANS stands for: autonomic nervous system.
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations that include: a. Breaking down food called digestion. b. The process of replication aka reproduction.
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations that include: c. Eupnea which means normal breathing. d. Normal heart rate.
BRAIN The largest part of the brain is called: the cerebrum.
The brain is part of the CNS which stands for: central nervous system.
The outer portion of the cerebrum is called: the cerebral cortex (outer part).
The middle (inner) portion of the cerebrum is called the: cerebral medulla.
The cerebrum is divided into 2 sections called : lobes.
The cerebrum is the: largest part of the brain.
Physiologies (functions) of the frontal lobes include: 1. Management of feelings called emotional control. 2. The desire to do something called motivation.
Physiologies (functions) of the frontal lobes include: 3. Management of urges (desires) called impulse control. 4. Finding answers to questions called problem solving.
Physiologies (functions) of the frontal lobes include: 5. Logical thinking called reasoning. 6. Forethought aka planning.
The frontal lobes are not completely developed until the end of: adolescence.
Adolescence means ages: 13 to 19.
Physiologies (functions) of the parietal lobes is to assess (evaluate) changes in the environment called: sensory stimuli.
Sensory nerve cells are aka: afferent nerves.
Physiologies of the parietal lobes include perception of a hurting discomfort called: pain.
Tactile perception called: touch, taste, temperature.
Awareness of sound: hearing.
Perception of aromas called: smell aka the olfactory senses.
The ability to remember called: memory.
Physiologies of the occipital lobes includes perception of light called: vision or sight.
Located inferior(below) the cerebrum is the: corpus callosum.
The cerebrum is the: largest part of the brain.
The corpus callosum allows communication of nerve impulses (signals) between the 2 halves of the cerebrum called the: Left cerebral hemisphere and Right cerebral hemisphere.
The cerebrum is divided into R and L halves called the: cerebral hemispheres.
the left cerebral hemisphere controls: Right side motor coordination.
Motor means: movement.
Motor nerve cells are called: efferent neurons.
The right cerebral hemisphere controls: the Left side motor coordination.
Located inferior to (below) the corpus callosum is the: thalamus.
The corpus callosum allows communication of nerve impulses (signals) between: the L cerebral hemisphere and the the R cerebral hemisphere.
Physiologies of the thalamus include relaying sensory impulses (signals) to the lobes (sections) for: interpretation aka explanation.
The thalamus is located below the: corpus callosum.
Located inferior to (below) the thalamus is the: hypothalamus.
Physiologies (functions) of the thalamus include: 'Relaying sensory impulses (signals) to the lobes (sections) for interpretation (explanation).
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 1. Control of the pea-shaped endocrine gland located at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland.
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 2. Management of hostility called aggression self-control..
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 3. Regulation of body heat called temperature control.
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 4. Perception (awareness) of the need to drink called thirst.
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 5. Regulation (control) of the sleep-wake cycle called the circadian rhythm.
Physiologies (functions) of the hypothalamus include: 6. Perception (awareness) of satiation (satiety) which means feeling full (satisfied) when eating.
The hypothalamus is located: inferior to (below) the thalamus.
The 2nd largest part of the brain is called the: Cerebellum.
The cerebellum is located at the: posterior base of the brain.
Physiologies of the cerebellum include: motor coordination aka balance or equilibrium.
Motor means: movement.
Located anterior to the cerebellum is the: brain stem.
Anterior means: in front of.
The cerebellum is located at the: posterior (back) base of the brain.
The BRAIN STEM consists of (contains) the: 1. Medulla oblongata.
The BRAIN STEM consists of (contains) the: 2. Pons.
The BRAIN STEM consists of (contains) the: 3. Midbrain.
Functions of the medulla oblongata and pons include: 1. Arousal from sleep aka wakening.
Functions of the medulla oblongata and pons include: 2. Awareness aka consciousness.
Functions of the medulla oblongata and pons include: 3. Regulation (contraol) of Heart rate.
Functions of the medulla oblongata and pons include: 4. Ventilation (breathing).
Functions of the medulla oblongata and pons include: 5. Regulation of blood pressure.
The MIDBRAIN is the connection between the: cerebrum and spinal cord.
Physiologies (functions) of the SPINAL CORD include: 1. Conveying (carrying) impulses (signals) from the sensory neurons (nerve cells) to the brain.
Motor nerve cells are aka: efferent neurons.
Branching off the spinal cord are 31 paired : spinal nerves.
Sspinal nerves convey (carry) impulses (signals) from the: sensory (afferent) neurons (nerve cell)s to the spinal cord.
Sensory (afferent) neurons (nerve cells) allow the perception (awareness) of: touch, taste, smell, hearing and sight (5 senses).
Most spinal nerves exit (leave) the spinal cord between the: vertebrae.
Vertebae are : back bones aka the spinal column.
MENINGES The brain and spinal cord are completely surrounded by: protective membrane linings called: protective membranes (linings) called the meninges.
The singular form of meninges is: meninx.
The outermost meninx is called: dura mater or tough mother.
The dura mater is a protective membrane completely surrounding: the brain and spinal cord.
The middle meninx is called the: arachnoid matter (spider layer)
The arachnoid matter is a protective membrane completely surrounding the: brain and spinal cord.
The innermost meninx is called the pia mater (delicate mother): The pia mater is a protective membrane completely surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
The cavity below the arachnoid matter is called the: subarachnoid space.
The subarachnoid matter is a protective membrane (lining): completely surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
The subarachnoid space contains a clear liquid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord abbreviated CHF which stands for: cerebrospinal fluid.
The subarachnoid space is the cavity below: the arachnoid matter.
Chambers within the brain that contain CSF are called: ventricles.
Chambers are: enclosed spaces.
CSF stands for: cerebrospinal fluid.
EYES The white opaque portion of each is called the : sclera.
Opaque mans: light will not pass through it.
The transparent anterior portion of each sclera is called: the cornea.
Transparent means: light will pass through it.
The colored portion of each is called the: iris.
Portion: means part.
The os in the center of each iris is called: a pupil.
Os means: opening aka meatus aka orifice.
A pupil that increases in diameter is called: pupillary dilation.
A pupil that decreases in diameter is called: pupillary constriction.
A pupil is the: os (opening) in the center of each iris.
The extension of each optic nerve that covers the inside of each is eye is called the: retina.
The physiology of each retina is to: absorb (capture) light.
Retinae consist of (contain): visual receptor cells called rods and cones.
Rods absorb (capture) : black and white.
Cones absorb (capture): color.
The area of each retina that provides maximum visual acuity (VA) is called: macula.
Visual acuity (VA) means: focus.
The physiology of each retina is to: absorb (capture) light.
The leading cause of vision oss and blindness among Americans 60 and older is abbreviated ARMD which stands for: Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) which is a deterioration (degradation) of the macula.
The area of each macula (lutea) that provides sharp VA for reading is called: fovea.
The connection between each optic nerve and retina is called: the optic disk.
The physiology of each retinas is to: absorb (capture) light.
The optic disc contains no rods or cones and are aka the: blind spots.
Rods capture: black and white.
Cones capture: color.
The optic nerves conduct visual impulses (signals) to the : thalamus.
The thalamus relays the visual impulses (signals) to the: occipital lobes (sections) of the brain for interpretation aka explanation.
The highly vascular layer between each sclera and retina that provides oxygen ad nourishment is called the: choroid.
Vascular means: pertaining to blood vessels.
The transparent crystalline structure located posterior to each pupil that accommodates light on each retina is called the: lens.
The anterior compartment of each eye is filled with a water-like transparent liquid called the: aqueous humor.
Aqueous humor is secreted from ciliary processes located in the: ciliary bodies.
Ciliary bodies contain ciliary muscles that change he shape of: crystalline lens for VA which stand for visual acuity aka accommodation or focusing.
The posterior compartment (chamber) of each eye is filled with a water like transparent liquid called: vitreous humor.
EARS The cartilaginous flap of each external ear is called a: pinna aka the auricle.
The tube (duct) leading from each pinna to each tympanic membrane is called: external auditory (hearing) canal.
Tympanic membranes are aka: eardrums.
Pinnae are aka: auricles.
Each external auditory (hearing) canal is lined with: modified sebaceous glands that secrete (produce and discharge) cerumen aka earwax.
Sebaceous means: oil.
Each middle ear consists of 3 auditory ossicles which are: hearing bones. The auditory ossicles include 1,. The malleus (hammer) 2. The incus (anvil) 3. Stapes (stirrup)
Two vessels (ducts) that connect the middle ears to the nasopharynx for pressure equalization are called: eustachian tubes.
Nasopharynx means: nose and throat.
The structure in each inner ear responsible for absorbing sound vibrations is called the: cochlea.
Absorbing means: capturing.
The connection between each stapes and cochlea is called: the oval window.
Stapedes are: auditory ossicles (hearing bones).
The physiology (function) of the cochleae is to: absorb sound vibrations.
Cochleae are located in: the inner ear.
The thalamus relays the sound impulses to the: temporal lobes of the brain for interpretation aka explanation.
The structure in each inner ear that aids in balance is called: the labyrinth.
Balance is aka: equilibrium.
Each labyrinth contains a: vestibule and semicircular canals.
Created by: bterrelonge
 

 



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