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regional Geography

secondary activities-the mezzogiorno

poor primary sector lacks natural resources, must import raw materials, gas imported from Algeria, hydroelectric power limited, drought, limestone bedrock is permeable, lack of surface water, lack of agricultural diversity, limits food processing
peripheral location far away from larger EU markets, 1100km from country's capital, 85 percent of region is upland, expensive and difficult to develop high-quality road and rail links, until 1950s hindered by twisted mountain roads, narrow tunnels through mountains: cassa
peripheral location 2 long distance transport costs high, difficult to compete with goods produced closer to economic core, major barrier preventing MNC investment, isolated from government influence, unable to modernize
limited labor force few large cities, choosing a location for industry difficult, 23 percent living ion poverty, seven times less likely to go to college, large scale outward migration, travel north for a better standard of living, employment opportunities and education
limited labor force 2 brian drain, smaller tax base, standard of living much lower than in the north, local markets not wealthy, lack of capital to invest
government investment 1957 Cassa scheme improve manufacturing, 2.3bn industrial development, Vanoni Plan 300,000 jobs , growth poles generate centers of economic activity-Pescara, Naples, Bari-Brindisi-Tarato, higher populations and port facilities
Vanoni Plan well-serviced industrial estates, tax exemptions and transport subsides, funds allocated for businesses, educate and up skill, investment in infrastructure, new airport at Calabria, improving ports, oil refining, petrochemical production, gas distribution
Vanoni Plan 2 60 percent of all investments, state-owned factories, 75 percent of all new jobs, Finsider Steelworks 1064, increased activity at Taranto port, most important port in Mediterranean, 35 million tonnes of freight, industrial employment has tripled,
lasting problems large steelworks, 75 percent of new industrial employment, more capital intensive than labor intensive, cost a lot but few jobs, prone to job losses, outward migration,
lasting problems 2 uneven development in the region, higher numbers of workers in mezzogiorno lost jobs than the north+
prevailing issues decentralize some of the industries, regional development Fund
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