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PSYC3310-ex2

developmental psych exam 2

QuestionAnswer
The Water - Stepping Pattern Exp. Dr. Ester Thelen tested baby on treadmill/water (6mths)
The Gap Exp. Dr. Karen Adolph height, depth - point of view changes with postures 9 mths- refuses to reach if too far while sitting, reaches while in crawling position
The Visual Cliff Exp. Dr. Joe Campos fear of heights linked to peripheral vision
The Moving Room Exp. Dr. Joe Campos walls move; new crawler ignores the perception of moving walls
Toy Car Experiment Dr. David Anderson
Cruisers Exp. Dr. Karen Adolph 11 mths- uses all surfaces available to cruise to destination; makes decisions about movement (crawl vs. stand)
The Slope Exp. Dr. Karen Adolph 14 mths: decides to negotiate between the ramp and ground; incline
Face Recognition Exp. Dr. Daphne Maurer - cards with face blobs New baby: prefers area of contrasts created by facial features 6 wks: prefers area of contrasts similar to facial pattern
Hidden Objects Exp. Dr. Andrea Aguiar 6mth: find green crocodile-> covered with cloth -> can't find it remaining image, moving hand intent
Object Permanence Exp. Dr. Andrea Aguilar 2.5 mth: moving doll, eyes tracking even though doll is not visible "things exist out of sight" 3.5mth: expects reappearance; tall objects behind shorter ones
Object Properties Exp. Dr. Andrea Aguilar unexpected container for ball - width is different than height 7.5 mths: understands long object should not fit small container
Double Occlusion Exp. Dr. Rachel Keen 9mth: screen and/or wall placed on track, no problem tracking path of ball with one both = still expects ball on the other side (from the screen)
Addition & Subtraction Exp. Dr. Karen Wynn 6mth: "knows" toy should be two behind screen, stares at the 'impossible'
The Tool Lab Exp. Dr. Amanda Woodward find, retrieve toy with cloth 11mth (yes) vs. 8mth (with repeat observation)
The Spoon Exp. Dr. Rachel Keen change orientation of spoon with each trial 19mth = switch hands to solve problem
The Hand Rail Exp. Dr. Karen Adolph 16mth: gauged need to use handrail solid wood vs cloth handrail
Intentions Exp. Dr. Amanda Woodward judge human behavior by watching actions
Reading Other People's Minds Exp. Dr. Andrew Meltzoff: comprehend other's tastes/thoughts/differences Dr. Reppacoli: crackers vs. brocolli 14mth - still gives crackers 18mth - gives brocolli
to 3-4 month reflexes Sucking Reflex Rooting Reflex Moro Reflex Grasping Reflex
to 6-7 month reflexes Swimming Reflex
to 9 month reflexes Babinski Reflex
Sensation occurs when information contacts sensory receptors
Perception interpretation of sensation in prefrontal cortex
The Wechsler Scales intelligence tests WAIS-IV: adults WISC-IV: children (overall IQ)
The Ecological View Eleanor & James Gibson perceive information that exists around us; objects have "affordances"
Visual Preference Method Robert Fantz determine whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by time attended to each stimuli
Dynamic Systems View Esther Thelen explains how infants assemble motor skills for perceiving and acting
Assimilation Piagetian concept in which children use existing schemes to incorporate new information
Accomodation Piagetian concept of adjusting schemes to fit new information and experiences
A-not-B Error Occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's preoperational stage
Symbolic Function Substage The 1st preoperational substage (2-4 yrs); child gains the ability to represent mentally an object that is not present
Intuitive Thought Substage The 2nd substage of preoperational thought (4-7 yrs); children begin using primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions
Centration The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
Seriation The concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (eg. length)
Transitivity The ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions; characteristic of concrete operational thought
Scaffolding In cognitive development, Vygotsky used this term to describe the changing level of support over the course of a teaching session, with the more-skilled person adjusting guidance to fit the child's current performance level
Social Constructivist Approach An emphasis on the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction. (Vygotsky's Theory)
Automaticity The ability to process information with little or no effort
Strategy Construction Creation of new procedures for processing information
Attention Focusing on mental resources
Selective Attention Focusing on a specific aspect of experience that is relevant while ignoring others that are relevant
Divided Attention Concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
Sustained Attention The ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time (vigilance)
Joint Attention Occurs when individuals focus on the same object or event; requires an ability to track another's behavior, one individual directing another's attention, and reciprocal interaction
Schema Theory States that people mold memories to fit information that already exists in their minds
Implicit Memory Memory without conscious recollection - memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically
Explicit Memory Conscious memory of facts and experiences
Working Memory A mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language
Elaboration Engaging in more extensive processing of information, benefiting memory
Fuzzy Trace Memory States that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations (1) verbatim memory trace and (2) gist
Episodic Memory Reflection on information about where and when of life's happenings
Semantic Memory A person's knowledge about the world, including fields of expertise, general academic knowledge, and "everyday knowledge" about meaning of words, famous individuals, important places, and common things
Concepts Categories that group objects, events, and characteristics on the basis of common properties
Thinking Manipulating and transforming information in memory, in order to reason, reflect, think critically, evaluate ideas and solve problems, and make decisions
Critical Thinking Thinking reflectively and productively, and evaluating the evidence
Reciprocal Thinking Involves individuals taking turns leading small-group discussions
Theory of Mind Thoughts about how one's own mental processes work and the mental processes of others
Intelligence The ability to solve problems and to adapt to and learn from experiences
Mental Age (MA) An individual's level of mental development relative to others
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) An individual's mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. (William Stern 1912)
Two-factor Theory Spearman's theory that individuals have both general intelligence, which he called "g" and a number of specific abilities referred to as "s'
Factor Analysis A statistical procedure that correlates test scores to identify underlying clusters or factors
Multiple Factor Theory L. L. Thurstone's theory that intelligence consists of seven primary mental abilities: (1) verbal comprehension, (2) number abilities, (3) word fluency, (4) spatial visualization, (5) associative memory, (6) reasoning, (7) perceptual speed
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Sternberg's theory that intelligence consists of analytical, creative, and practical intelligence
Emotional Intelligence The ability to perceive and express emotions accurately and adaptively, to understand emotion and emotional knowledge, to use feelings to facilitate thought, and to manage emotions in oneself/others
Heritability The fraction of the variance in a population that is attributed to genetics
Culture-fair tests Intelligence tests that are intended not to be culturally biased
Stereotype Threat The anxiety that one's behavior might confirm a negative stereotype of one's group
Developmental Quotient (DP) An overall developmental score that combines subscores on motor, language, adaptive, and personal-social domains in the Gessell assessment of infants
Bayley Scales of Development Assesses infant development: (1) mental scale, (2) motor scale, (3) infant behavior profile. (Nancy Bayley)
Crystallized Intelligence An individual's accumulated information and verbal skills, which continues to increase with age. (Horn)
Fluid Intelligence The ability to reason abstractly, which begins to decline in middle adulthood. (Horn)
Cognitive Mechanics The "hardware" of the mind; includes speed and accuracy of sensory input, visual and motor memory, discrimination, comparison, categorization
Cognitive Pragmatics The culture-based "software programs" of the mind
Wisdom Expert knowledge about the practical aspects of life that permits excellent judgement about important matters
Mental Retardation Condition of limited mental ability in which the individual (1) has low IQ, 70 or below; (2) has difficulty adapting to everyday life; (3) has an onset of these characteristics by age 18
Gifted Having high intelligence (IQ of 130 or higher) or superior talent for something
Creativity The ability to think in novel and unusual ways and come up with unique solutions to problems
Divergent Thinking Thinking that produces many answers to same question; characteristic of creativity
Convergent Thinking Thinking that produces one correct answer; characteristic of conventional intelligence tests
Created by: armybratkat