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ARRT registry review covering patient care content area

What is nosocomial infection? Infections acquired in the course of medical care, AKA “Healthcare acquired infection) (Ex: urinary tract infection, surgical wound infection)
What is Iatrogenic infection? Iatrogenic infection is a nosocomial infection that results from a particular treatment or therapeutic procedure (originate from a physician)
What is communicable disease? Disease passed on by direct or indirect contact with an infected person.
What are pathogens? Pathogens are microorganisms that causes infections and disease such as bacteria, fungi, viruses
Which factors that increase the patient’s potential for nosocomial infection? Age, hereditary, nutritional status (obesity), stress, inadequate rest & exercise, health history, inadequate defenses, personal habits (drug abuse, alcoholic, smoke)
What is the most common site of nosocomial infection? Urinary tract infection
Which elements needed to transmit infection? An infection agent, an environment in which the pathogenic microbes can live and multiply, a portal of exit from the reservoir, a mean of transmission (direct contact & indirect contact), a portal of entry into a new host (inhale, skin contact)
What is direct contact? Is when body fluids are touched directly from person to person
What is indirect contact? • Fomite: syringe or dressing • Vehicle: food, water, drugs, blood • Vectors: infected animal or insects (mosquitos, tick) • Droplet: nose, mouth of an infected host • Airborne: comes from evaporated residue left from droplet
Which type of hepatitis has become the most common blood-borne infection in the United States? Hepatitis C
What is the purpose of medical asepsis? To eliminate as best as possible all microorganism by the use of soap, water, friction, and chemical disinfectants (hand wash, alcohol sanitizer, gloves)
What is surgical asepsis? Microorganisms and their spores have been completely destroyed by means of heat or chemical
What kind of standard precaution do you use when you take care of TB, chicken pox, and measles patients? Use airborne precautions: • Private room with negative air pressure (keep door closed) • May require a special, custom fit respirator for healthcare workers • Surgical mask on patient when being transferred within hospital
What to do for contact precautions? • Private room • Gloves worn before entering room • Gown if you might touch patient • Equipment in patient’s room must stay there • Follow standard precautions
What is isolation precaution? To separate the patient who has a contagious illness from other hospitalized patients & from healthcare workers Negative pressure room
What is reverse isolation (protective isolation)? When a patient is susceptible to infection Protects the patient Positive pressure room
What is the most common use method of surgical asepsis? Autoclaving (steam under pressure)
What is a patient’s Bill of Right? is presented by the American Hospital Association with the expectation that it will contribute to more effective patient care and be supported by the hospital on behalf of the institution, its medical staff, employees, and patients.
What is tort? A tort involves personal injury or damage, resulting in civil action or litigation to obtain reparation for damage incurred. A tort maybe committed intentionally or unintentionally.
What is false imprisonment? False imprisonment is immobilizing a patient against his or her will
What is informed consent? A consent is a contract wherein the patient voluntarily gives permission to someone (in this case, the imaging staff) to perform a procedure or service
Which procedures are required inform consents? • Invasive procedures such as a surgical incision, a biopsy, a cystoscopy, or paracentesis • Procedures requiring sedation and/or anesthesia • A nonsurgical procedure such as an arteriography • Procedures that involve radiation
What is shock? Shock is the body’s pathologic reaction to illness, trauma, or severe physiologic or emotional stress.
What is hypovolemic shock? Hypovolemic shock occurs when the amount of intravascular fluid decreases by 15% to 25% or by a loss of 750 to 1,300mL
What causes hypovolemic shock? Due to internal or external hemorrhage, loss of plasma from burns, or fluid loss from prolonged vomiting, diarrhea, or medications
What is the cause of Cardiogenic shock? Cardiogenic shock is caused by a failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the vital organs (aka heart failure)
What is neurologic shock? Neurologic shock results from loss of sympathetic tone, causing vasodilation of peripheral vessels.
What causes neurologic shock? Spinal cord injury, severe pain, neurologic damage, the depressant action of medication, lack of glucose (as in insulin reaction or shock), or the adverse effects of anesthesia
What is septic shock? When invaded by bacteria, the body begins its immune response by releasing chemicals that increase capillary permeability and vasodilatation, leading to the shock syndrome
What is anaphylactic shock? Anaphylactic shock is the result of exaggerated hypersensitivity reaction (allergic reaction) to reexposure to an antigen that was previously encountered (in this case is contrast) by the body’s immune system
General trauma guidelines • Do not remove dressing or splints • Do not remove C-collar until cleared • Do not take patient off of backboard until cleared • Do not touch impaled objects • Do not remove anti-shock pneumatic garments • Do have gown, mask, gloves, and goggles
What is negative contrast agent? Negative contrast agents decrease organ density to produce contrast. The most commonly used negative agents are carbon dioxide and air
What is positive contrast agent? Positive contrast agents are used to increase organ density and improve radiographic visualization. Positive contrast agents are barium sulfate and iodinated preparations.
List routes of drug administration Enteral, parenteral, and topical
What is Image Gently Image Gently is founded in 2007 by ASRT to raise the awareness of radiation safety in pediatric imaging.
References Torres' Patient Care in Imaging Technology book chapter 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 14, 16
Created by: trangng