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VCE PE Chapter 1 & 2

Revision for chapter 1 & 2

What is a skill? The ability to do something well.
Define gross motor skill and give an example. Involves the recruitment of large muscles group. There is less emphasis on precision. eg. running and swimming
Define fine motor skills and give an example. Involves the recruitment of smaller muscles associated with movements requiring precision. eg. bouncing a ball before serving in tennis, hand and finger movement required during darts.
What are the three types of movements? Discrete, Serial and Continuous.
Define discrete motor skills. Have an obvious beginning and end, such as kicking a ball or a netball pass.
Define serial motor skills. Multiple discrete skills performed in a sequence. This combination of skills is classified as serial motor skills. eg. gymnastics routine
Define continuous motor skills. Have no definite beginning or end point. eg. walking and run.
Define closed motor skills and give an example. Skills where the performer have the greatest control over the performance environment. eg. Indoor diving, throwing a dart, playing billiards
Define open motor skills and give an example. Skills performed in a less predictable environment, where the conditions are constantly changing. The performer has limited, if any, control over their environment. eg. surfing, white water rafting
What are Fundamental Movement Skills? Foundation skills that provide the basis for the development of more sport-specific movement skills. They can be classified as: Stability skills involving balance and control of the body, locomotor skills the enable us to move through space.
Define the three stages of learning? Cognitive - beginner is mentally trying to comprehend the movement required of the motor-skill: what needs to be done. Associative - performer is beginning to refine their technique/movement pattern. Autonomous - the skill is largely automatic
What is the skills learning continuum? A performer can be at different stages of learning for different skills within the same sport. This means, a performer will move along the continuum depending on the specific skill.
What do you need to consider when choosing practice methods? Part & whole practice Amount Distribution (massed or distributed) Variability (blocked or random)
Define task complexity. How complex the skill is (how many steps in the skill)
Define task organisation. How dependent each segment is on the previous segment. Not all skills can be broken down into individual segments.
When selecting whole or part practice, what are the things you need to take into consideration? Task complexity & Task organisation
What is practice distribution (include the two types)? Refers to the scheduling of practice sessions. Distributed Practice - shorter but more frequent training session. More time is allocated to rest between sessions. Massed Practice - less frequent training sessions that last for a longer period of time.
What is practice variability (include the two types)? The amount of skills practiced in a session. Blocked - involved practicing the same skill continuously without changing to a different task. Random - varied sequencing of different motor skills in the same training session.
Define Feedback. The information that a performer receives about that outcome of a task they have performed. Feedback can be classified as either intrinsic or augmented.
Define Intrinsic Feedback. When the performer uses their own senses to assess the performance (visual, auditory, proprioception and touch.
Define Augmented Feedback. Can occur during or after a performance. It is an external feedback that can benefit the intrinsic feedback. It can be classified as either knowledge of results or knowledge of performance.
Define knowledge of results. Specific feedback about the outcome of the task. Particularly beneficial for learners trying to develop new skills.
Define knowledge of performance. Relates to the characteristics of performing a task as opposed to the outcome of the task.
What are the four stages of Qualitative Movement Analysis? Preparation, Observation, Evaluation and Error correction.
List 4 professionals who use qualitative movement analysis. Teachers, coaches, instructors, trainers, sports medics, physical therapists, biomechanists.
What is the Preparation stage of QMA? Coaches need to develop an observation strategy based on solid knowledge of the game and skills. They must determine the specific purpose of the analysis, which player they will observe and how they their progress will be tracked.
What is the Observations stage of QMA? Observations can be performed live and/or recorded digitally. The main limitation of observing is subjectivity.
What is the Evaluation stage of QMA? Decide what the problem is and what is causing it. This can be either subjectively or objectively.
What is the Error Correction stage of QMA? Weaknesses are identified and strategies to address these are then developed using either direct or constraints based coaching or instructional approaches
Define Direct Coaching. Approaches are rigid, and provide feedback on every practice attempt. This limits the need for the learner to go searching for their own movement solutions.
Define Constraints-based coaching. Employs an ecological or dynamical systems approach, which takes into account the interaction between three categories of constraints: the individual, the environment and the task.
What are Sociocultural influences? Are customs, lifestyles and values that characterise a society or group. These factors are the key force within cultures and societies that affect our thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
List 4 Cultural Factors in relation to Sociocultural influences. Education, politics, religion, social organisations, technology, values, attitudes, race, climate, housing, child-rearing practices & geographic location
List 4 Social Factors in relation to Sociocultural influences. Family structure, role and status in society, time, available resources, access to equipment, access to coaches, discrimination, personality, self-belief, self-motivation, active role models & parental encouragement.
What is perceived competence? Is based on self-evaluation of one's effectiveness or capability in a specific context. Consistency of perceived competence of motor skills is associated with actual skill competence, and often with participation in physical activity.
Created by: 2426219237419596