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Atoms: The building blocks of matter from the Elements of Chemistry Series

alpha radiation All radiation occurs when the nucleus of an atom decomposes to form a new nucleus. It consists of helium nuclei, two protons, and two neutrons.
atom The fundamental (not smallest) unit of matter in the universe, made up of a nucleus of protons and neutrons and orbiting electrons.
atomic number The number of an element is determined by the number of protons in its nucleus.
atomic mass The mass of the element
atomic mass unit (amu) This is a measurement of the atomic mass. One amu is roughly equal to the mass of one proton.
beta radiation It occurs when high-speed electrons decompose from the nucleus.
Bohr, Niels Danish physicist, 1885 - 1962 Developed Planetary Model of atoms.
DeBroglie, Louis French physicist, 1892 -1987 derived an equation that describes the wavelength of a moving particle.
electron Negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of atoms.
element An atom with a unique number of protons.
energy In physics and chemistry, work, or the capacity to do work.
energy levels Electrons orbit here. They are sometimes called shells or just levels.
fourth quantum number Refers to the spin of the electron.
fission When the nucleus of atoms are split apart, releasing energy
fusion When two hydrogen atoms fuse under extreme heat, energy is released. It is the energy of the sun and stars.
gamma radiation It is an energetic form of light similar to X-rays. It happens when the nucleus of an atom decomposes to form a new nucleus.
Heigenberg, Werner German physicist, 1901-1976 Introduced Uncertainty Principle.
Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity Electrons fill the energy levels in regular patterns. They first fill the s orbitals, then the p, and so on.
hydrogen The element with the atomic number of one and symbol of H. It is the most common element in the universe.
ion An atom with more or less electrons than protons.
isotopes Atoms that have more or less neutrons than protons.
matter Material that makes up objects. It cannot be created or destroyed.
mass The total quantity of an object's matter.
neutron Particles in the nucleus of atoms that have no electrical charge.
nuclear stability An atom that is electrically neutral has an equal number of protons and electrons.
nucleus The center of an atom
orbitals The shapes of the orbits of electrons.
oxidation numbers Numbers indicating whether an ion has a positive or negative charge.
oxygen An element with atomic number of 8 and symbol of O.
periodic table The arrangement of elements according to their atomic number and group
planetary model The theory that electrons circle the nucleus of atoms like orbiting planets. Chemists and physicists abandoned this model when Quantum Theory was developed.
principle quantum number Often referred to as "n." This number refers to the energy of the orbitals.
proton Positively charged part of the nucleus of atoms.
quanta Quantities of energy
quantum numbers Four numbers that describe the motion of electrons.
Quantum Theory The theory that explains matter and energy at atomic and sub-atomic levels, sometimes called Quantum Mechanics.
quarks Sub-atomic particles of matter. There are six different types of quarks but only two occur in the nucleus of atoms.
radioactive decay Occurs when the original nucleus of an element decomposes to form a new nucleus, releasing radiation.
Rutherford, Earnest British physicist (New Zealand), 1871 -1937. According to his model, all of an atom's positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus.
second quantum number Refers to the shape of the orbital.
strong nuclear force The force that holds the nucleus of atoms together. It is one of the fundamental forces of the universe.
third quantum number Refers to the orientation of the orbital.
Thomson, J. J. British physicist, 1856- 1937 His experiment provided the first evidence that atoms are made of even smaller particles.
transuranium elements These are 92 elements found naturally in the universe. Several elements, with atomic numbers greater than 92, have been created under laboratory conditions. They are called transuranium elements.
Uncertainty Principle The theory that it is impossible to know precisely the location and velocity of electrons at the same time.
Created by: MissChoe