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02 - Matter (Ch. 2)

Introduction to Matter - Chapter 2 - Prentice Hall Science Explorer

QuestionAnswer
matter ________ is anything that has mass and takes up space.
chemistry __________ is the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes.
substance A ________ is a single kind of matter that is pure and has a specific set of physical and chemical properties.
physical property Dissolvability, liquid, shiny, malleability, hardness, texture, color, freezing point. A ____ can be observed without changing a substance into another substance.
chemical property combustibility, ability to tarnish, ability to react, rusting, new substance produced. A ____ describes the ability of a substance to change into different substance.
element A ____ is made of atoms. A compound is made of molecules. _________ is a pure substance that cannot be broken down into any other substance by chemical or physical means.
atom An atom is the basic particle of an element. Atoms have protons and neutrons in the nucleus, and electrons that go around the nucleus..
chemical bond A _____ is the force of attraction between two atoms formed by sharing electrons.
molecules A ____ like H2O(water) is a particle formed when two or more atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
100 Now scientist know that all matter in the universe is made of slighlty more than 100 different substances called elements.
compound A ______ is pure substance made of only one type molecule made of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio like H20 (water), NaCl (table salt), C6H12C6 (sugar)
chemical formula A ______ shows the elements in the compound and the set ratio of atoms in the compound. H2O (water) NaCl (table salt), C6H12C6 (sugar), CO2 (carbon dioxide)
mixture A ____ is two or more substances, compounds, or elements in the same place but are not chemically combined.
heterogeneous The substances or different parts in a ____ mixture can be seen. blood, soil, salad, cereal, oil and vinegar salad dressing, mixed vegetables.
homogeneous The substances in a _____ mixture are so evenly mixed that the different parts cannot be seen. air, salt water, sugar water.
solution A ____ is an example of a homogeneous mixture. It does not have to be a liquid. It can be a solid. Brass is a ___ of the elements copper and zind.
electrolysis The use of electricity to break a compound into elements or simpler compounds. Breaking water into hydrogen and oxygen.
weight Your ____ is a measure of the force of gravity on you. You have less of this on the moon.
mass The ____ of an object is the measurement of the amount of matter in the object.
kilogram The ____ is the standard unit of mass. It is 1000 grams.
volume The amount of space that matter occupies is called its _______.
density ____ relates the mass of a material in a given substance. Often expressed as grams (g) in a given volume (cm3) or (mL).
mass, volume You can determine the density of a sample of matter by dividing the _____ by its __________.
water The density of __ at room temperature is 1 g/cm3 or 1 g/mL.
physical change changes in state (freezing, boiling), change in form (breaking, malleability, ductile) -A ______ is any change that alters the way matter looks but does not change the substances in the matter into new substances.
change of state a physical property of a substance changing between a solid, liquid, and a gas.
chemical change combustion, electrolysis, oxidation, tarnishing - A change in matter that produces one or more new substances is a _____ change or ______ reaction.
rusting slow chemical change of a metal substance bonding chemically with oxygen.
tarnishing slow combination of a bright shiny metal (brass, silver) bonding with sulfur or another substance to produce a dark coating.
electrolysis Use of electricity to break a compound like water (H2O) into the individual elements or simpler compounds. Water into hydrogen and oxygen.
combustion The rapid combination of a fuel with oxygen to produce heat, light, and a new substance. Often involves gas, coal, or wood.
law of conservation of mass 50 g of Iron (Fe) and 25g of sulfur (S) = 75 g of iron sulfide (FeS). The fact that matter can not be created, nor destroyed, just transformed into something else is called the law of ________. The type and number of atoms does not change!
energy ____ is the ability to do work or cause change. Even bending a paper clip needs ___.
temperature ____ is the measure of the average energy of random motion of particles of matter. _____ is related to the amount of thermal energy an object has.
thermal energy Energy always from hot to cold. ____ is the total energy of all of the particles in an object. We experience this as air in the room as being hot or cold.
endothermic Energy always goes from hot to cold. When an object takes energy in, this is an ____ change. Think of ice melting as it takes in energy (gets warm)
exothermic Energy always goes from hot to cold. When an object releases energy to another object, this is an _____ change. Think of the room getting colder as the air releases energy that is taken in by an ice cube (or ice in a cup of coffee)
kinetic energy The energy of matter in motion. Objects are faster closest to ground, the higher the roller coaster goes, the slower it becomes and the more potential energy it has.
potential energy _____ energy is the energy an object has because of its position. The roller coaster at the top of the hill is full of _____ energy and has none at the very bottom. A stretched rubber band has lots of _____ energy. So does a ball held over my head. Now drop it and it transforms to kinetic energy.
chemical energy The internal energy stored in the chemical bonds between atoms is a from of potential energy that is sometimes called ______.
electromagnetic energy Visible light is one example of ___, this form of energy is the only form that does not require matter and can travel through outer space where there is no matter.
electrical energy The energy of electrically charged particles (electrons) moving from one place to another. Electrons move from one atom to another in many chemical changes.