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# Chapter 5

### 8th Grade, Energy and Energy Resources

what is kinetic energy? the energy of an object because it is moving
what is potential energy? stored energy due to an object's location or condition
What happens to the kinetic energy of an object as it's speed increases? the kinetic energy increases
What does kinetic energy depend on aside from the speed of an object? the mass of the object
If two objects are moving the same speed, which one has more kinetic energy? the one with more mass
What specific kind of potential energy is present when an object is raised off the ground? gravitational potential energy
How much kinetic energy does an object have if it has zero speed? zero KE
What two factors does the gravitational potential energy of an object depend on? the mass of the object and it's height above the ground
Energy that is carried by an electric current. electric energy
The ability to cause change. energy
Energy that is due to motion. kinetic energy
The total energy of an object or group of objects due to large-scale motions and interactions. mechanical energy
The energy that is stored in the nucleus of an atom. nuclear energy
The stored energy due to interactions between objects or particles. potential energy
Energy that is carried by electromagnetic waves. radiant energy
Energy that is carried by sound. sound energy
The sum of kinetic and potential energy of particles in matter due to their random motion. thermal energy
The energy transfer to an object by a force, making the object move in the direction of the force. work
force that resists the motion of two surfaces that are touching friction
energy can be transformed from one form into another or transferred from one region to another, but energy cannot be created or destroyed law of conservation of energy (LOCOE)
transmitted by electromagnetic waves radiant
dug up fossil
nonrenewable energy resource made of the remains of ancient organisms and is burned as an energy source fossil fuel
energy resource that cannot be used up inexhaustible energy resource
energy resources that is used faster than it is replaced nonrenewable energy resource
positively charge centers of atoms nuclei
energy resource that is replaced as fast as, or faster than it is used renewable energy resource
What kind of potential energy is stored when an spring is compressed elastic potential energy
Elastic potential energy can be stored by compressing or ___ an object. stretching
What type of potential energy is stored in food between the bonds of the atoms that make up the food? chemical potential energy
How is chemical energy from food and other substances released? through chemical reactions
What is sometimes described as "the ability to do work?" energy
How much gravitational potential energy does an object have if it is resting on the ground? zero GPE
What happens to the gravitational potential energy of an object if you increase it's height above the ground? the GPE increases
What is the SI unit of measure for energy? the joule
What form of energy is sometimes defined as the sum of large-scale kinetic and potential energies of an object or group of objects? mechanical energy
How do objects produce sound? by vibrating
What kind of wave can travel in a vacuum? (microwaves, for example) electromagnetic wave
A microwave oven changes electrical energy to what? radiant energy
What are the changes from electrical energy to radiant energy to thermal energy? energy transformations
When you throw a ball upward, the ball has its greatest speed and most ______ energy when it first leaves your hand. kinetic
As a ball reaches its highest point, the ball gains its greatest ______ energy. potential
According to _______ "energy can be transformed from one form into another or transferred for one region to another, but energy cannot be created or destroyed." the law of conservation of energy
The force that resists the motion of one surface over another. friction
Energy used for cooking and heating. thermal
Gas stoves and furnaces change ______ energy form natural gas into thermal energy. chemical
Plants transform _____ energy from the Sun into chemical energy stored in food. radiant
Many devices you use every day are powered by _____ energy from electrical power plants. electrical
Battery-powered devices change _______ energy into electrical energy for power. chemical
Cars transform most of the chemical energy in gasoline into what? waste energy
Most of the energy that we use every day came from where? the sun
Energy used by people in their daily lives is produced by? electrical energy plants
The three main sources of energy used in electrical power plants? burning fuels, nuclear, hydroelectric
What is an energy source that is used faster than it is replaced or it is in limited amounts. nonrenewable energy resource
What are the remains of an organism that can be burned as an energy source? fossil fuels
_____ and natural gas form from microscopic marine organisms whose remains are subject to extreme temperature and pressure for millions of years. petroleum
What forms on land when remains of plants come under strong pressure? coal
Burning natural gas produces less _______ than burning fossil fuels. pollution
People can transform ______ energy from uranium nuclei into thermal energy. nuclear
Nuclear power plants produce wastes that are _______ and can cause great damage to living things. radioactive
What is an energy resource that is replaced faster or as fast than it is used? renewable energy resource
_____ is radiant energy from the sun. solar energy
Solar cells convert solar energy into _____ energy. electrical
What is thermal energy produced inside the earth called? geothermal energy
What are materials from plants and animals that people burn called? biomass
What is the most common bio-fuel used in cars? ethanol
About 86% of the energy used in the United States comes from ______, a nonrenewable resource. fossilll fuels
_______ energy is one way to make our natural resources last longer. conserving
How do the kinetic energies of a large truck and a small car parked side-by-side compare? They both have zero KE.
How do the gravitational potential energies of a large truck and a small car parked side-by-side compare? They both have zero Gravitational PE.
How do the gravitational potential energies of a large truck and a small car teetering on the edge of the same cliff compare? The truck has more gravitational PE because of it's larger weight (mass).