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Chapter 5

DHS PS Ch. 5 - Thermal Energy (2015)

QuestionAnswer
Related to the average kinetic energy of an object's atoms or molecules. Temperature
The sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the atoms in an object? Thermal Energy
Thermal energy ________ as temperature increases. increases
At constant temperature, thermal energy increases if ______ increases. mass
Thermal energy that flows from something at a higher temperature to something at a lower temperature is called? heat
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of a material by 1 degree C or K is called? Specific heat
What is the formula for Change in Thermal Energy? Q = m(Tf-Ti)C
When heat flows into an object and its temperature rises, the change in temperature is? positive
When heat flows out of an object and its temperature decreases, the change in temperature is? negative
What is used to measure specific heat? calorimeter
How do temperature and heat differ? Heat is thermal energy that flows from something warmer to something cooler; temperature is related to kinetic energy of atoms in a substance.
The transfer of thermal energy through matter by direct contact of particles is called? Conduction
Kenetic energy is transferred as particles ______? collide
Solids, particularly metals, are ______ heat conductors. excellent
The transfer of energy by the movement of heated particles from one place to another in a fluid is called? Convection
Convection ______ transfer heat from warmer to cooler parts of a fluid. currents
Convection currents create rain forests and ____ over different regions of Earth. deserts
The energy transfer by electromagnetic waves is called? Radiation
Some radiation is _______ and some is reflected when it strikes a material. absorbed
Which color absorbs the most radiant energy? black
Heat transfer by radiation is ______ in a gas than in a liquid or solid. best or faster
Most living things control the flow of heat by using special features such as fur, _____ or scales. blubber
A material that does not let heat flow through it easily is called a? Insulator
Gases such as ____ usually make better insulators than liquids or solids. air
A _______ layer in a thermos is a good insulator because it contains almost no matter to allow conduction or convection to happen. vacuum
What state of matter generally makes a good heat conductor? Solids are best, followed closely by liquids and gases are the worst.
What state of matter generally makes a good heat insulator? Gases usually make better insulators than liquids or solids.
What type of heating system uses fuel to heat air, which is blown through ducts and vents; cool air is returned to the furnace to be reheated? Forced-air system
What type of heating system used hot water or steam in a radiator that transfers thermal energy to the air? Radiator system
What type of heating system uses electrically heated coils in the floors or along the base of the wall to provide heat? Electric heating system
What kind of energy is from the sun? Solar or radiant
Solar heating that does not use mechanical devices to move heat is? Passive
What do active solar heating systems use to absorb radiant energy, which is circulated through the building? Solar Collectors
What type of device converts thermal energy into mechanical energy? Heat engine
What type of engine burns fuel inside the engine in chambers or cylinders? Internal Combustion Engine
What percentage of fuel does an internal combustion engine convert from chemical energy to mechanical energy? around 25%
What appliance contains a coolant that absorbs heat from inside of the appliance and releases it on the outside as heat refrigerator
This device removes heat from inside a home or building and releases it outside. air conditioner
This device can both cool air in the summer and warm air in the winter? heat pump
The human body stays cool by ___________ of sweat. evaporation
If the particles in an object begin to move more quickly, their average kinetic energy __________ and the object's temperature ___________. increases, rises
What is the measure of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object? temperature
The moving particles in an object have what kind of energy? kinetic
________ is the thermal energy that flows from a material with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature. heat
Thermal energy is the _________ of the particles in a material. total energy
A material that reduces the flow of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation is _______? an insulator
Convection will usually most likely occur in? liquids and gases
The transfer of energy that does not require matter is? radiation
Conduction will most likely occur in? solids followed closely by liquids
The inside surface of a glass inside a vacuum bottle that is coated with aluminum to prevent heat loss by? radiation
Describe the flow of heat if you put ice cubes in a warm glass of pop. heat will travel from the warm pop to the cold ice
What is the method of heat transfer that is involved if someone is ironing clothing? Conduction
If you were to design and build a home, where would you put the most insulation at? Most in ceiling, followed by walls and then floor.
As particles move faster, they tend to be farther apart making the fluid less dense causing it to rise. Thes best describes with method of heat transfer? convection
Solar collectors are parts of an? active solar heating system
Gasoline engines and diesel engines are what type of engines? internal combustion engines
What is the sequence of strokes in a four-stroke engine? intake, compression, power, exhaust
In a forced-air heating system, the main method of heat transfer would be? convection
Which part of an engine converts thermal energy into mechanical energy? piston
Which type of surface would absorb the most radiant energy? dull, dark, surface
Which method of heat transfer best explains why heating one end of a steel rod will eventually cause the unheated end to become hot? conduction
In internal combustion engine uses what kind of energy to do work? heat
Mr. Smith takes a thermos bottle filled with hot coffee to work every day. The thermos bottle keeps the coffee hot by? slowing heat transfer
A snake rests on a warm rock in the sun. It's body is warmed by? conduction and radiation
Energy as heat is transferred from a higher temperature to? a lower temperature
The transfer of energy that does NOT require matter is? radiation
Evaporation causes a ____ effect. cooling
Steam engines are examples of __________ ? external combustion engines.
Which two phases of matter are considered to be fluids? liquids and gases
What material will slow heat energy transfer from a warmer object to a cooler one? insulation
The transfer of energy as heat caused by the collision of molecules is called? conduction
The study of the relationship between heat, work, and thermal energy is called? thermodynamics
Heat always transfers from a warmer object to a cooler object unless work is done is known as? The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
The process by which engine fuels burn is called? combustion
As the kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance increases the? temperature of the substance increases
When you feel a warm oven, the sensation of warmth is the result of? energy transfer
Good ________ do not allow heat to move easily through them. insulators
The amount of thermal energy gained by an object is equal to the work done on it as well as any heat that is added. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics
If two objects have the same temperature, the one with the greater _____ will have more thermal energy. mass
Mass is measured in ____ ? kg
Two objects of the same mass are heated and then allowed to cool. Which object cools the fastest? The one with the lesser specific heat.
What is the specific heat of water? 4,200 J/kg K
What side of a house receives the most sun in the winter? South
As matter is heated, it tends to _______ in size. expand
Whenever a gas is compressed, its temperature ________ ? increases
Whenever a gas or liquid is expanded, its temperature ________ ? decreases
This a two-way heat mover Heat pump
Hypothesize why dipping your finger in a cup of alcohol and a cup of water and then blowing causes one finger to feel cooler. Alcohol has a lower boiling point which means that it evaporates easily causing a greater cooling effect.
The theoretical point at which the kinetic energy of particles is zero Absolute zero
As matter is heated and particles move farther apart, the _______ ________ increases. potential energy
The reason why water has such a high specific heat is because of the _____ _______ ________between its molecules. strong intermolecular bonds
The reason metals are such good conductors of heat is because their ______ can move freely between atoms. electrons
Touching a hot surface is an example of ________ . conduction
Smoke rising up from a fire is an example of ______ . convection
Feeling heat from the sun is an example of ______ . radiation
As matter in a fluid cools, it becomes more _____ and sinks. dense
This effect is caused by allowing radiant energy to enter a space (such as a car or planet), heat the matter inside, and then trap the heat inside. The greenhouse effect
A refrigerator contains a _______ that is pumped through pipes on the inside and outside of the refrigerator. coolant
How does a refrigerator do work? It does work by compressing the gas and releasing heat
In a refrigerator, liquid coolant is pumped through an ______ _____ and changes the liquid to a gas and dramatically lowering the temperature. expansion valve
________ is known as the human coolant Sweat
If you leave the front door open in the winter, you are doing what? Letting the warm air out.
Q represents change in thermal energy measure in Joules
m represents mass measured in kilograms
Tf represents final temperature measured in Celsius or Kelvin
Ti represents initial temperature measured in Celsius or Kelvin
C represents specific heat measure in J / kg K