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Chapter 7

Stimuli External environment information that provokes a physiological or psychological activity or response
Sensation Process where our sensory organs detect stimuli from the environment and transmit information to the brain
Perception Detecting and responding to incoming sensory information
Sensory Receptors Specialized neurons that convert energy from a stimuli into an action potential
Receptive field Area in which a receptor can respond to a stimulus
Transduction Receptors change the energy of the detected sensory information into a form which can travel along neural pathways to the brain
Transmission Process of sending the Sensory information to relevant areas of the brain
Perception Process where the brain gives meaning to sensory information
Interpretation Sensory information is given meaning so it can be understood
Visual Sensory System Part of the nervous system which processes visual detail
Cornea Transparent, convex-shaped covering which protects the eye and helps to focus light rays onto the retina
Pupil An opening in the centre of the iris where light passes into the lens
Iris The coloured part of the eye which regulates the amount of light that enters
Lens -behind the pupil -refract incoming light and focus it onto the retina
Ciliary Muscle Moves the lens by expanding and contracting
Retina Light sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. Images are focused on photoreceptors at the back of the retina
Photoreceptors Light-sensitive visual receptor cells in the eye
Rods -low levels of light -night vision -not colour vision -not good at detecting fine detail
Cones -high levels of light -well-lit conditions -fine-detail -colour vision
Optic Nerve Carries messages to the brain
Blind Spot Where the optic nerve leaves the eye -no rods or cones
Primary Visual Cortex Receives and processes visual information from the eyes
Visual Perception Principles Rues we automatically apply to visual stimuli to assist ORGANISING and INTERPRETING in a CONSISTENT, RELIABLE and MEANINGFUL way
Gestalt Principles 'Unified whole' -We see whole objects rather than separate parts
Closure We close up, fill in or ignore gaps and see the object/s as complete
Camouflage -confuses figure ground -occurs when figure and ground are not easily separated but blend
Figure Ground The figure (object) stands out against a less prominent ground (background)
Similarity Tend to see stimuli that are similar in size, colour or form as forming a group
Proximity Stimuli that are positioned close together are seen as forming a group. e.g letters in a word
Depth Cues Source of information from the environment or body that assists in the perception of depth
Primary Depth Cues Cues from the 3D environment only. They tell us where objects are and help us to judge distance
Secondary Depth Cue All pictorial cues (monocular)
Binocular Depth Cue -2 eyes - close objects
Convergence Binocular Brain detects and interprets tension from eye muscles when the 2 turned inward. Greater tension = closer object Primary --- 6 metres
Retinal Disparity Binocular Slight differences between to retinas are perceived as a measure of distance. Less disparity = further away Primary ---- 10 metres
Monocular Depth Cue Depth perception requiring one eye
Accommodation Monocular Shape of lens changes to focus on near or distant objects. Change in lens shape is sent to the brain. Primary ---- 3 metres
Pictorial Depth Cue Monocular Create 3D on 2D paper Secondary
Linear Perspective Parallel lines appear to converge as they extend to a vanishing point at the horizon
Interposition Partial obscuring of one object by a closer object
Texture Gradient Decreasing in detail as the picture recedes
Relative Size The larger of 2 objects is perceived as being nearer
Height in the Visual Field Objects that are further away are higher in the visual field. Closer to the horizon = distant
Perceptual Constancies Tendency to perceive an object as remaining stable and unchanging despite any changes that may occur to the image on the retina
Brightness Constancy Perceive an object as maintaining it's level of brightness despite changes in the amount of light
Size Constancy Involves recognizing that an object's actual size remains the same, even though the size of the image cast on the retina changes
Shape Constancy Perceive an object as maintaining its shape despite any change in shape of the object on the retina
Perceptual Set A readiness to perceive Stimuli in a particular way, based on what we expect it to be
Context Influence of environmental factors on perception
Past Experience Personal experiences throughout life. -pre disposed us to see information in a certain way
Motivation Process that initiates, guides and maintains goal directed behaviour
Emotional State Feelings can influence perceptions
Culture How cultures reflect and shape psychological processes -shape how we interpret visual information
Gustation Physical act or sense of tasting
Taste Receptors Type of receptor which allows the sensation to taste *Gustatory cells
Taste Buds Nerve endings on the tongue and back of throat that are responsible for taste
Papillae Upper surface of tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus, cheek, epiglottis where taste receptors are located. * small bimps on tongue containing taste buds
Taste Pore Small opening in the tongue
Tastant Any chemical that stimulates the sensory cells in a taste bud. *dissolved chemical molecules that can be tasted
Gustatory Cortex Area of the brain responsible for the sensation of taste
Five Tastes Salt, sweet, sour, biter and umami
Created by: georgia.sampson