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04 Elem and Per Tbl

Elements and the periodic table

Atom The smallest particle of an element. Can not be divided any further and still work.
Electrons Negatively charged particles that revolve around an atoms nucleus.
Nucleus The inner core of an atom. The overall charge is positive. It is composed of Positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.
Protons Positively charged particles that are found in an atoms nucleus. This particle never ever leaves. If it did, you would have a new element.
Energy levels. The areas around an atoms nucleus where electrons are found. Named k,l,m,n,o. The electrons in n have the most energy. The Electrons in K have the least. NOT TESTED IN 8th GRADE.
Neutron An electrically neutral particle found in an atoms nucleus. Protons repel each other. Neutrons allow two protons to come closer together.
Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Called an atoms finger print. Each type of atom has it's very own atomic number.
Mass number. The sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Each Particle weighs 1 A.M.U. so adding the total of the particles in the neucleus gives you the mass also.
Isotopes. Atoms with the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons.
Atomic mass Is the average mass of all the isotopes of an element.
Periodic table A table of elements organized by increasing atomic numbers. Elements with similiar properties ( chemical and physical ) end up in the same groups or families.
Period The name given to the horizontal rows on the periodic table. Element properties repeat with a pattern across the periods. When I write a horizontal sentence, I end it with a ____.
Groups Elements of the modern periodic table fall into 18 vertical columns called groups or families. The elements that fall into the same groups have similiar properties with each other. Also called Families.
Chemical symbol. Short way to represent an atom of a given element. Consists of 2 letters from the elements name. May be the Latin name. First letter is Capital second is small case.
Plasma A state of matter that consists of a gas-like mixture of free electrons and neuclei of atoms that have been stripped of electrons.
Nuclear fusion A process in which two atomic nuclei combine forming a larger nucleus and releasing huge amounts of energy. Fuse means bring together.
Conductivity The ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object.
Reactivity The ease and speed with which an elemnt combines or reacts with other elements and compounds.
Corrosion The gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction.
18 How many families or groups are their on the Periodic Table.
7 How many periods are their on the Periodic Table.
100 Approximately how many unique elements make up all the matter in the universe. Like letters of the alphabet.
Nonmetals. An element that lacks most of the properties of a metal. Found to the right of the staircase on the periodic table. They are brittle, do not conduct heat or electricity.
Diatomic molecule. (Di Atomic) A Molecule that is composed of two atoms of the same element. O2,N2,F2,Cl2,Br2,
Family Another name for Groups. Members of a Group or ___ all have the same properties. If one is flammable, they all are flammable. We are _____ we go VERTICALLY.
Noble gases. Group 18. Group of gases that are not reactive in nature. AKA Inert gases. ( Inert means not reactive.)
Semiconductors. Substances that can conduct electricity under some conditions but not under others.
metalloids The most useful property of this part of periodic table is their varying ability to conduct electricity. It depends on temperature, exposure to light, and presence of small amounts of impurities. This part of periodic table has properties of metals and nonmetals.
nuclear fisSon. The second s stands for SMALLER. a nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus splits spontaneously or on impact with another particle, with the release of energy.
vertical row. Family members all act alike. You have to pick an atom that has similar properties to atom X. Do you pick one in the same horizontal row (period) or the same vertical row (family/group).
Alkaline earth metals. Group 2 of the periodic table. Second most reactive group of metals. NOT TESTED in 8th GRADE.
Transition metals. The elements in groups 3 through 12. Most of our familiar metals are found in this group. Iron,lead,gold,silver. They are hard, shinny, good conductors of heat and electricity. They chemically react in similar ways. NOT TESTED in 8th GRADE.
Halogens. Group 17 Elements. Most reactive group of nonmetals. Florine is the most reactive of the family and Astatine is the least . NOT TESTED in 8th GRADE.
Alkali metals. The metals in group 1 from lithium to francium. The most reactive group of elements on the chart. Francium being the most and lithium the least with in that group. NOT TESTED in 8th GRADE.