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Lindsey Jones 3C2

Lindsey Jones 3C2 - Therapeutics : Microbiology

QuestionAnswer
What is microbiology? Keyword is INFECTION. It is about microscopic organisms that can infect us.
What are the 5 different types of Organisms? 1. Gram positive. 2. Gram negative. 3. Acid-fast bacilli. 4. Viruses and 5. Fungi.
What are the 4 Gram Positive Organisms? Any word w/ coccus. 1. Pneumococcus. 2. Steptococcus. 3. Diplococcus. 4. Staphlococcus.
Gram Positive Organisms Treat with (Penicillin-Type) Antibiotics- What are the three types? 1. Amoxicillin. 2. Carbenicillin. 3. Ampicillin.
In gram positive organisms if patient is restitant to penicillin then what treatment do you give? 1. Nafcillin. 2. Oxacillin. 3.Methacillin.
In Gram Positive organisms if patient is alergic to penicillin antibiotics & penicillin resistant medication then what treatment do you give? 1. Erythromycin. 2. Cephaloridine (loridine) 3. Cephalexin (Keflex). 4. Cephalothin (Keflin).
What are the 6 Gram Negative Organisms? 1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa 2. Haemophilus influenza 3. Klebsiella 4. Proteus 5. E.Coli 6.Serratia marcescens
How is Gram Negative Organisms caused, where do you find it & How do you prevent it? 1. Spread by poor hand washing & unsanitary environmental conditions. 2. Found in normal Flora for the GI tract 3. Best prevented by Hand washing.
What are the treatments for Gram Negative Organisms? 1. Sterptomycin 2. Gentamycin 3. Tobramycin
What is acid-fast Bacilli? 1. Related to TB 2. Mycobacterium TB (tubercle bacilli)
What are the treatments for Acid-fast Bacilli? 1. Isoniazid (INH) 2. Rifampin 3. Ethambutol 4. Streptomycin. Treatment course can last upto 2 yrs. Pt. compliance is difficult, education is very important.
Name some Anti-viral agents for viruses? 1. Influenza 2. Adenovirus 3. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) 4. Cytomegalovirus
How do you treat Virus? There are not many antiviral drugs. Only one is worth reviewing. 1. Ribavirin (Virazole)- Used to treat RSV. Only administered with SPAG unit. Must be kept away from preg. Women. Drug crystallizes and cause obstruction- use appropriate filters.
Name 3 funguses(Fungi)? 1. Candidiasis (Candida)- Thrust mouth 2. Histoplasma Capsulatum (Histoplasmosis)3. Coccidimycosis (coccidioides)immitis
How do treat the fungus Candidiasis? 1. Nystatin & Amphotericin B
What causes Tetracycline? 1. Mycoplasma Pneumonia 2. Chronic Bronchitis 3. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
What causes Nosocomial Infections? Poor hand washing. Transmitted thru direct contact, indirect contact(equipment) & Airborne mechanisms (coughing & sneezing)
How do you treat equipments that cause Nasocomial infections? 1. Always sterilize equipment 2. Use one-way valves 3. Utilize Singe-pt.-use equipment. 4. Dedicate equipment to infectious pts. (stethoscope, IPPB).
How do you treat Aerosols-Small Volume Nebulizers(SVN) Use disposable, replace frequently/deliver same medication via an MDI.
In Aerosols, water reservoirs should have sterile water only. Why? Tap Water can promote an infection of pseudomonas aeruginosa. If possible, use disposable, self-contained water reservoirs.
What are the General Prevention Guidelines? 1. Use unit dose medication 2. Write date &time on all disposable equipment 3. Discard disposable equipment in room 4. Wipe down all equipment with 70% alcohol solution. 5. Double bag infectious disposable equipment before discarding.
what are the 6 isolation methods? 1. Universal precaution 2. Respiratory Isolation 3. Strict Isolation 4. Reverse Isolation 5. Enteric Isolation 6. Contact Isolation.
What is Universal precautions? 1. Gloves, Mask & Gown
What is Respiratory Isoaltion? 1. Airborne Particles, use the N95 particular respirator , in addition to universal precaution. Pt. use mask when visitors are present or when transported outside the room for a procedure.
What is Strict Isolation? Gloves, gowns, masks to be used by all that enter the room.
What is Reverse Isolation(protective)? For immunosuppressed pts. Such as AIDS, burn trauma,etc. Also for organ transplant to provide extra protection & lower risk for infection.
What is Enteric Isolation? use gloves- cover any part of the body that comes in contact with blood , fecal matter, etc.
What is Contact Isolation(wound&sking? use gloves & gown if very close body contact.
Where you can find Pathogenic Organisms? In Blood, Sputum , Urine & on any number of places on the body.
Two ways of getting a sputum? 1. Expectorated. 2. transtracheal aspirate sample.
In sputum culture what do you mean by Expectorated? 1. Must do prior to eating. best done in the morning. Commonly contaminated with oral flora
In Sputum Culture, What is transtracheal Aspirate Sample? 1. Catheter placed thru an incision in the cricothyroid membrane. 2. Untained sputum sample can be obtained with this method. 3. Sample used to diagnose Legionnaire's Disease ONLY.
what is the Method of lung tissue via Percutaneous Lung Biopsy? Method of obtaining lung tissue to analyze for malignancies, lesions, etc. it is done thru a small hole in the chest wall & is done in lieu of tissue sampling w/ a bronchoscope or a larger surgical opening.
Created by: johnfaar