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Neuro development

developmental milestones & reflexes

hand regard 2 mo
head control 4-5 mo
rolling 4-6 mo
voluntary grasp 6 mo
segmental rotation 6-8 mo
sitting 8 mo
creeping 9 mo
crawling 8-9 mo
cruising 10 mo
walking 12-18 mo
symmetrical tonic labyrinthine birth - 6 mo
positive support (wt on balls of feet = LE & trunk extension) 35 wk gest - 2 mo
plantar grasp (toes) 28 wk gest - 9 mo
flexor withdrawal 28 wk est - 2 mo
crossed extension 28 wk gest - 2 mo
traction (pull to sit) 28 wk gest - 5 mo
plantar grasp (fingers) birth - 4 mo
ATNR (asymmetrical tonic neck) NOB/BOB, rotation of cranium = UE ext on face side, UE flexion scalp side "ARCHER" birth - 6 mo
STNR (symmetrical tonic neck reflex), flexion of head = UE flexion & LE extension, extension of head = UE extension & LE flexion 4-12 mo
Galant Reflex, stimulus on skin along skin along spine shoulder top hip = lateral flexion to that side 30 wks gest - 2 mo
rooting reflex 28 wk - 3 mo
moro reflex, drop trunk/head into extension = abd & open hands 28 wks gest - 5 mon
walking (stepping) reflex, support trunk into slight flexion = flex & ext of LE 38 wks gest - 2 mo
RRR register, recall, remote
exteroceptive is what type of sensory testing? external stimulus
proprioceptive is what type of sensory testing? internal, analytical
combined cortical is what type of sensory testing? input requiring more specific analysis
motor development 2-5 yo postural control, self feeding, complex thought, ambulation
motor development 5-10 yo inc mm growth w/inc wt, refinement of skills - hop, run, kick, dribble. dominance defined - left vs right, beginning of specifity, social component - participate in organized sports
motor development 11-19 yo adolescence, inc skill ability, strong social component, fastest, strongest, most accurate at this point
age 20-39 adulthood, peak of strength, fibers and size will begin to decrease after 39. Exercise most easily modifiable behavior affecting wellness,
middle adulthood 40-64 dec in strength, sometimes undetectable, 2nd'ary to dec in activity, 30-505 decline by age 80
late adulthood, 65+ changes in skills/pathology = chgs in lie, despite exercise may slow and coordination decrease, inc in fall risk, 65+ 30% may fall once per year
prenatal 0-40 wks gestation. movement in utero, competent @ birth, skills disappear secondary to new environment/forces
infancy birth-24 mo, rapid motor development, milestones, move out of physiologic flexion
early childhood 2-5, inc postural control=inc independent & communicate "I DO, I DO!!", utensil use, color, build, open doors & jars, complex thot (share/take turns), ambul (wide BOS, min UE & trunk reciprocal, quickr, stairs, kick, throw, tandem,hop, catch, ex/self imag
childhood 5-10. inc mm growth & wt, hopping, run, kick, dribble, refinement of existing skills, dominance refines write/draw, specifity, social component, organized sports
adolescence 11-19, plateau begins in motor develop (athletes) 12 yo ~90% mobility, strong social compo, run, jump, throw, speed, stg, accuracy, inc fine dexterity for crafts,music ("I used to...")
adulthood 20-39, exercise -"mostly easily modifiable behavior....affecting health & wellness", 30 yo peak of stg, fibers & size will begin to dec post
middle adulthood 40+, loss of strength is sometimes undetectible secondary to dec activity, 30-50% by age 80
late adulthood 65 +, chng in skills/pathology=chg in life, despite ex, skills slow & coord may dec, inc fall risk, 30% 65+ experience at least 1 fall/yr
musculoskeletal physiological changes fetal wks 5-8, rapid development, most intact before birth
mm phys chgs 5 mo - 3 yo mm development 2x greater than bone, mm grows in girth, length, number of fibers (mostly type II)
males rapid growth when? birth - 2yo, 10-16 yo (14x to 16 yo)
females slow gradual inc.....when 3.5-10 yo (10x to 16 yo)
how does mm flexibility change? ability to bend inc w/play in pediatric population, decrease activity = dec in flex, despite loss, can be modified
primary ossification bone grown prior to birth
appositional growth bone growth on the surface t/o life
does density & growth continue? yes, until age 30, eventually resorption > than growth, thus dec density, women > men
cardiopulmonary physiological changes (deliver nutrients and remove waste) heart complete by fetal wk 8, full system functional post birth, heart inc 4x size by age 5, capacity inc w/play t/o childhood, become advocates! NUTRITION & EXERCISE!!
decrease in activity means....... decrease in elasticity
lungs complete when? later in fetal development
as lung size increases,,,,,,,,,, with activity so will efficiency = dec RR
decreased activity will..... lead to dec capacity/elasticity
why consider patient's cardiopulmonary? endurance!
Created by: djbari



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