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INTRO TO PHARMACOLOG

Pharmacology for Health Professionals

QuestionAnswer
a before (ante)
a.c. before meals
aka also known as
ASA aspirin
ad lib as desired
APAP acetaminoophen
AD right ear
AS left ear
AU both ears
B.ID twice a day
c with
cap(s) capsule or caplets
CR, C-R controlled release
D decongestant
DC discharge(d) discontinue(d)
DR drug resistant
D.S. DS double strength
ER extended release
ES extra strength
FA folic acid aka folate
GHB date rape drug
h, hr hour(s)
h.s. hours of sleep
HS half strength
HTN hypertension, high blood pressure
IB ibuprofen
IND investigational new drug
K potassium
KCl potassium chloride
mEq milliequivalents
MN midnight, 2400
MS morphine sulfate
liq liquid
MDR multidrug resistant minimum daily requirement(s)
MSO4 morphine sulfate
MgSO4 magnesium sulfate
ND non-drowsy
NIH National Institute of Health
NKA no known allergies
NKDA no known drug allergies
NPO and n.p.o. nothing by mouth
NR no refills
O.D. or OD right eye
O.D. or OS left eye
O.U. or OU both eyes
OTC over the counter
p after
p.c. and pc after meals
Pt patient
PCN penicillin
PCA patient controlled analgesia
Analgesia condition of no pain
PRN and prn and p.r.n. when necessary
q every
qAM every day before noon
QD and q.d. and Qd and qd every day
qh and q.h. every hour
q2h every two hours
qhs every hour of sleep (bedtime)
QID and qid and Q.I.D. and q.i.d. four times a day
RDA recommended daily allowance
RFs refills
RPh registered pharmacist
Rx prescription (prescribe)
SSI sliding scale insulin. Physician's insulin order based on BS.
BS blood sugar
TID+t.i.d. three times a day
TPN total parenteral nutrition (hyperalimentation). Administering of all nutrients intravenously.
UD unit dose
ung and oint unguent, ointment
WNL within normal limits
w/o without
XL extended length
XR extended release
> greater than
< less than
= equal to
^ change
Study of drugs and their interaction with living organisms (life forms is called pharmacology
Administered (administration) given (giving)
Therapeutic beneficial
Medicine (medication) uses include: 1. Preventing pathology (disease). 2.Diagnosing pathology (disease). 3. Treating pathology (disease)
Diagnosing Identifying (pinpointing) pathology (disease) from signs (SX and symptoms (SX).
Prescription (Rx) Physician's order to dispense (disp) medicine (medication) and or treatment (Tx)
Dispense (disp) preparation and administration (giving)
FDA Food and Drug Administration. Regulates prescription (Rx) medications and OTC medications.
OTC over the counter
tolerance Needing an increased dosage for desired effects to a medication or drug.
Scheduled medications (drugs or controlled medications (drugs) Medications or drugs having the potential (capability) for addiction (abuse).
As the number of a scheduled medication or drug decreases the addiction (abuse) potential increases
Potential capability
Schedule 1 medications/drugs include: 1. Heroin. 2. LSD 3. Marijuana (cannabis) 4. Ecstasy 5. Quaalude (methaqualone) 6. Peyote 7. Crack cocaine.
Schedule II medications/drugs include: 1. Cocaine 2. Methamphetamine. 3. Methadone 4. Dilaudid (hydromorphone) 5.Demorol (meperidine) 6. OxyContin (oxycodone) 7.Adderall (amphetamatine) 8. Ritalin (methylphenidate)
Schedule III medications/drugs include: 1. Vicodin 2. Codeine 3. Ketamine (anesthetic) 4. Anabolic steroids 5. Testosterone
Schedule IV medications/drugs include: 1. Valium (diazepam) 2. Librium (chlordiazepoxide) 3. Ambien (zolpidem) 4. Xanax (alprazolam) 5. Ativan (lorazepam)
Schedule V medications/drugs include: 1. Lomotil (diphenoxylate + atropine) 2. Lyrica 3. Cough suppressants (antitussive + codeine)
Comprehensive (complete) information of all prescribed (ordered) and OTC(over the counter) medications (medicines) is called a: pharmacopeia.
A reputable (trustworthy) pharmacopeia is abbreviated: PDR or Physician's Desk Reference
The beneficial action of a medication is called the: therapeutic effect.
Undesirable but not unexpected action(s) or a medication or drug is/are abbreviated: SE which stands for side effect(s)
A common side effect (SE) of ASA is: gastric upset
ASA stands for aspirin
Gastric means: pertaining to the stomach
Severe side effects (SE) are abbreviated ADR which stands for: Adverse drug reaction(s)
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) of aspirin (ASA) is: GI bleeding
GI stands for gastrointestinal
Undesirable interaction of medications or drugs is called: incompatibility
The antitubercolosis medication Rifidin (rifampin) is incompatible with BCP which stands for birth control pills.
Reason(s) a medication should not be administered (given) is/are called (a) contraindication.
Aspirin (ASA) is contraindicated for a client taking a medication classified to reduce clotting called an: anticoagulant.
An exaggerated (enhanced or magnified) allergic reaction to a medication or drug is called: anaphylaxis
Life threatening anaphylaxis is called: anaphylactic shock 1. Loss of consciousness (LOC) 2. Urticaria (hives) 3. Lingual edema (tongue swelling) 4. dysphagia (difficulty swallowing 5. dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
A medication or drug that deactivates another medication or drug is called an antagonist or antidote.
Narcan (naloxone) is classified as a narcotic antagonist
Detailed guidelines for dispensing (preparation) a medicine is called a medication protocol
dispensing giving
Medications (medicine) administered (given) to prevent (protect) are called prophylactics
Prophylactic (prevention or protection) medications include: BCP - birth control pills aka OCP
OCP oral contraceptive pills
Prophylactic medications include: 1.Anti-infective medications aka antibiotics
Prophylactic means preventive or protection
A unique reaction to a medication or drug is called idiosyncrasy
unique means uncommon
Tylenol #3 is a compound of APAP and codeine
Prophylactic medications include Vaccinations (vaccines) aka immunization.
Combining medications or drugs is abbreviated comp which stands for compound
Combining medications or drugs to produce an exaggerated effect is called synergism
Combining means mixing
Tylenol #3 provides synergistic analgesia which means exaggerated pain relief.
APAP stands for acetaminophen
An undesirable synergistic (exaggerated) effect can occur with the combination ETOH and antihistamine causing unusual drowsiness
ETOH stands for alcohol or ethanol
Life threatening synergism can occur with the combination of ETOH (ethanol) and opioid such as morphine or oxycodone or fentanyl
Synergism means exaggerated effect
The name given to a medication when it is created is called the generic name
Medications are prescribed (ordered) for their therapeutic effect which means beneficial action
Generic names are usually recognized by: 1. Being lower cased. 2. Being usually difficult to pronounce. 3. Being bracketed (surrounded) by parentheses.
The nick-name given to a generic drug so consumers will remember it easily is called the trade name or brand name or product name
Trade name medications and their generic equivalent must contain exactly the same amount of active ingredients
Ingredient(s) is/are portions or parts
Trade names are usually recognized by 1. By being capitalized (upper cased) 2. Being easy to pronounce. 3. Containing a registered symbol. 2.
Active ingredients are designed to provide a therapeutic effect which means beneficial action
Portions (parts) permitted (allowed) to vary (differ) in trade name medications and their generic equivalents are called inert ingredients or inactive ingredients
Inert ingredients (portions) include 1. Binders 2. Fillers 3. Preservatives 4. Buffers
Pharmacists are permitted to substitute a generic equivalent for a prescribed trade name medication unless the prescribing physician requests no substitutions or DAW which means dispense as written
Prescribe means ordered
The margin (amount) between the beneficial level (amount) of a medication is abbreviated TI which means therapeutic index
Toxic means poison (poisonous)
A thin margin between the beneficial level and toxic (poisonous) level of a medication is abbreviated NTI which stands for narrow therapeutic index
Margin, level and index mean amount
A large initial amount of a medication administered (given) to quickly reach the therapeutic index (TI) is called loading dose or bolus
Initial means beginning.
Determining the smallest medication dosage that will produce a therapeutic index (TI) is called titration (titrate)
Determining means discovering
Dosage means amount
A blood test to determine the concentration of a medication is abbreviated TDM which stands for therapeutic drug monitoring
Determine means discover
Concentration means amount
A blood test o determine the highest amount of medication is called a peak level
A blood test to determine the lowest amount of a medication is called a trough level
Determine means discover
An inert substance administered (given) to create a psychological and/or physiologic therapeutic (beneficial) effect is called a placebo aka a "sugar pill".
Inert means inactive
Most medications (drugs) are detoxified by the liver
Detoxified means counteracted
Medications are prescribed (ordered) for their therapeutic (beneficial) effect.
Most medications (drugs) are excreted by the kidneys
Excreted means released
Most medications can be detected in a urine specimen
Detected means discovered
Specimen means sample
All new pharmaceutical medications are protected by a patent lasting 17 years
A medication patent means that no other company can legally manufacture or market an identical medication.
The designed (planned) effect (action) of a medication is called the classification.
Testable medication classifications in classroom presentations will be underlined.
The classification of ASA (aspirin) include: 1. Non-narcotic analgesic which means non-addictive pain reliever. 2. NSAID which stands for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
The classifications of ASA (aspirin) include: 1. Antipyretic which means against fever. 2. Anticoagulant which means against clotting.
Medications classified to treat malignancies are called: antineoplastics aka chemotherapy
Malignancies are cancers that spread
Tablets designed to dissolve in water before swallowing are called effervescents
Designed means intended
Dissolve means to liquefy
An example of enteric coated ASA is Ecotrin
ASA stands for aspirin
Enteric coated tablets have a special covering to slow disintegration and help prevent the side effect (SE) of stomach upset.
A tablet with an indented line running across the top is called scored
Indented means notched
Tablets with a special covering to slow disintegration and help prevent the side effects of stomach upset are called enteric coated
Disintegration means dissolve (break up)
Medications designed (intended) to disintegrate slowly in the oral cavity (mouth) are called lozenges or troches or pastilles
Disintegrate means dissolve (break up),
A bottle (container) with a rubber diaphragm designed (intended) for hyperdermic needle insertion is called a vial
Hypodermic means under the skin
A bottle (container) with a narrow neck designed to break open is abbreviated amp which stands for ampule
Liquid medications containing ETOH are called elixirs (elix) or tinctures.
Liquid medications containing no alcohol (ETOH) are abbreviated syp which stands for syrup
Medications are prescribed (ordered) for their therapeutic (beneficial) effect (action)
Fat globules (droplets) dispersed (mixed) in water for injection is called lipid emulsion
Medications(medicines) dispersed (mixed) in thickened water are called gels
Undissolved medication mixed wit a liquid (water) just before administration (giving) is abbreviated amp which stands for suspension
Since medication particles will settle, a suspension (susp.) must be shaken well before use.
Routes of Administration: Route of administration (giving) means the path by which a medication is taken into the body
Routes of administration include: Giving medications to the skin or eyes or ears abbreviated top which stands for topical.
Topical (top) administration (giving) includes: a. The abbreviation lot which stands for lotion. b. The abbreviation cr. which stands for cream.
Topical (top) administration (giving includes: The abbreviation oint. and ung. which stand for ointment (unguentum) The abbreviation gt and gtts which stand for drop(s).
Routes of administration include: Giving medications through the skin into the bloodstream abbreviated TD which stands for transdermal (patch)
Routes of administration include: Giving medications PO or po or P.O or p.o. which stand for per (by) os (opening) aka by mouth or orally.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications under the tongue abbreviated SL which stands for sublingual.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications within the nose abbreviated IN which stands for intranasal.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications through a tube inserted into a nostril (nare) and down to the stomach abbreviated NG (ng) which stands for nasogastric.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications through an artificial opening into the stomach abbreviated G tube which stands for gastrostomy tube.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications through an artificial opening into the second (2nd) section of the small intestine abbreviated J tube which stands for jejunostomy tube.
Routes of administration include: Giving medication PR which stands for per rectum. Medications administered rectally usually refer to suppositories (ovules) or creams or foams or douches.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications vag which stands for vaginally. Medications administered vaginally (vag) usually refer to suppositories (ovules) or creams or foams or douches.
Routes of administration include: Giving medications by breathing in abbreviated INH which stands for inhalation.
Inhalation ( INH) administration (giving) includes: A device that turns a liquid medication into a mist called a nebulizer or vaporizer or aerosol
Inhalation (INH) administration includes: A device that delivers vaporized medication combined with oxygen (O2) under pressure abbreviated NPPV which stands for noninvasive positive pressure ventilation.
NPPV is aka IPPB which stands for intermittent positive pressure ventilation.
Routes of administration include: 12. Giving medications within the windpipe abbreviated ET which stands for endotracheal.
PARENTERAL ADMINISTRATION: Parenteral administration means giving a medication through a hypodermic (under the skin) needle.
The use of a hypodermic (under the skin) needle to force medicated liquids into the body is abbreviated INJ which stand injection.
The diameter (lumen) (distance across the center of a circle) of the opening of a hypodermic needle borehole is abbreviated G which stands for gauge.
As the number of the hypodermic needle gauge (G) increases: the borehole size decreases.
Guage (G) means the diameter (lumen) of the opening of a hypodermic needle borehole
Examples of parenteral administration include; 1. Injection (INJ or inj) of a medication within the dermis abbreviated ID which stands for intradermal.
The dermis is the second (2nd) layer of the skin.
ID (intradermal) injections (INJ or inj) are commonly used to perform TST which stands for tuberculin skin test(s)
Names associated with TST(tuberculin skin test) include: a. Tine b. PPD c. Mantoux
Examples of parenteral admistration (giving) include 2. Injection (INJ or inj) of a medication into the hypodermis (3rd) layer of the skin abbreviated subQ or subcu which stand for subcutaneous.
Subcutaneous (subQ) injections are commonly used to administer (give) a. Allergy desensitization aka "allergy shots" b. Varivax which is a varicella vaccination to protect against chicken pox. c. An anticoagulant called heparin.
Subcutaneous (subQ) injections are commonly used to administer (give) d. Zostavax which is a herpes zoster vaccination for clients 50 or older to reduce the incidence of shingles.
e. A local anesthetic called Xylocaine aka lidocaine f. EpiPen aka epinephrine or adrenaline.HBV which s
g. A hormone to lower BS (blood sugar) is called insulin.
Examples of parenteral administration (giving) include: 3. Injection (INJ or inj) of a medication within a muscle abbreviated IM or I.M. which stand for intramuscular.
Intramuscular (IM) injections are commonly used to administer (give) a. Cobalamin aka vitamin B12. b. Twinrix which is an immunization for the HAV and the HBV which stand for hepatitis A virus and Hepatitis B virus.
Intramuscular (IM) injections are commonly used to administer (give): c. Gardasil or Cervarix which are immunizations for the HPV which stands for human papillovirus. d. Fluzone which is an immunization for influenza.
Examples of sadministration (giving) include: 4. Injection (INJ or inj) of a medication within a vein abbeviated IV or I.V. which stands for intrafenous.
A small IV (intravenous) needle with plastic wings is called a butterfly
Examples of parenteral administration (givinjg) include 5. Rapid injection (INJ) of a medication within a vein abbreviated IVP which stands for intravenous push.
Examples of parenteral administration (giving) include: 6. Secondary IV medication infused (added) to a primary IV infusion (addition) abbreviated IVPB which stands for intravenous piggyback.
Eamples of parenteral administration (giving) include 7. Injection of a medication within a joint abbreviated IA which stands for intra-articular
Common IA injections include SAIDS which stands for steroidal antiflammatory drug.
ED (epidural) Injections are aka caudal (tail) injections.
Examples of parenteral administration include: 9. Injections of a medications into the space below the arachnoid matter abbreviated IT which stands for intrathecal.
The arachnoid mater is the middle meninx.
Common intrathecal IT injections include a. Anesthesia which means condition of no feeling. b. Analgesia which means condition of no pain.
METRIC SYSTEM The amount of space a liquid occupies (fills) is abbreviated vol which stands for volume
Occupies means fills
L stands for liter
Liter is a measurement of volume
Volume is the amount of space a liquid occupies (fills)
1 liter equals 1000 mL which stands for milliliters
A milliliter is the amount of liquid that occupies (fills) a cc which stands for cubic centimeter
The heaviness of a substance is abbreviated WT which stands for weight
g stands for gram
Gram (g) is a measurement of weight (WT)
1 gram equals 1000 milligrams
Weight (WT) is the heaviness of a substance
mg stands for milligram
Milligram is a measurement of weight
1 Milligram (mg) equals 1000 mcg or micrograms
Micro means is one part of 1 million parts
1 gram equals 1000 milligrams
1 gram equals 1 million micrograms
kg stands for kilogram
Kilogram is a measurement of weight
1 kilogram equals 1000 grams
kilo means one thousand
M or m stands for meter
Meter is a measurement of length
1 meter equals One thousand or 1000 millimeters
To convert liters to milliliters move the decimal three places to the right
To convert grams to milligrams move the decimal 3 places to the right
To change meters to millimeters move the decimal 3 places to the right.
1.000 liters equal 1000 milliliters(mL)
1.000 grams equal 1000 milligrams (mg)
1.000 meters equal 1000 millimeters (mm)
To convert mL to liters move the decimal 3 places to the left
To convert mg to grams move the decimal 3 places to the left
1000. mg equals 1 gram
1000. mL equal 1L
1000. mm equal 1 meter
Teaspoon is a measurement of volume
Volume is the amount of space that a liquid occupies
One teaspoon equals 5 milliliters (mL)
A milliliter (mL) is the amount of liquid that occupies (fills) a cc which stands for cubic centimeter.
Tbsp stands for tablespoon
Tablespoon is a measurement of volume
Tablespoon equals 15 mL
How many teaspoons are in one tablespoon three
Fl oz stands for fluid ounce
Fluid ounce is a measurement of volume
Volume is the amount of space that a liquid occupies
One fluid ounce equals 30 milliliters
One tablespoon equals 15 mL
How many tablespoons are in one fluid ounce 2
One drinking glass equals 8 fluid ounces or one cup
One fluid ounce equals 30 mL
How many milliliters are in one cup 8 x 30 mL = 240 mL
gal stands for gallon
Gallon is a measurement of volume
1 gallon equals 128 fl. ozs or 3.78 liters (L)
gr stands for grain
Grain is a measurement of weight
Weight is the heaviness of a substance
One grain equals 60 mg
Milligram means 1/1000 of a gram
oz stands for ounce
lb stands for pounds
Ounces and pounds are measures of weight
1 pound equals 16 ozs
2.2 pounds equals 1 kilogram
Dosage amount of medications is routinely based on the client's weight measured in kg which stands for kilograms 1 kg = 1000 g = 2.2 pounds
The exact conversation from pounds to killograms occurs by dividing the client's weight by 2.2
Cm stands for centimeter
Centimeter is a measurement of length
1 inch 2.54 centimeters (cm)
Military time designates a number for each hour of the day
Designates means chooses
0100 = 1:00 oclock am
1300 1:00 oclock pm
2400 12:00 midnight
One minute after midnight is 0100
One minute before midnight 0059
Created by: bterrelonge
 

 



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