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Neuro Lesions

Neuro Lesions WUPT

weakness with sustained actvitiy; ptosis; problems with speech myasthenia gravis
ipsilateral paralysis below lesion; ipsilateral loss of position, vibration and touch below lesion; contralateral loss of pain and temp startingone or two dermatomes below lesion; ipsilateral loss of pain and temp at zone of injury only brown-sequard syndrome
bilateral loss of pain and temp in UE; no LE loss of pain or temp; position, vibration and touch OK thoughout body; paralysis of muscles innervated by segments involved; progresses to cause upper motor neuron signs in LE Syringomyelia
loss of hearing; ipsilateral facial paralysis; ipsilateral reduced facial sensation and gait unsteadiness acoustic neuroma (caused by tumor of CN VIII)
akinesia; bradykinesia; resting tremor; rigidity; postural instability Parkinson's Disease- caused by pathology of the substantia nigra pars compacta
chorea; irritability, depression and apathy; attentional and memor deficits; dementia Huntington Disease (caused medium spiny neuron death in the GPe)
uncontrolled movements of the proximal limb muscles Hemiballismus (usually caused by unilateral stroke of the subthalamic nucleus and is treated with dopamine antagonists)
stance/gait ataxia; no individual limb ataxia; rotated/tilted head; nystagmus; titubation Midline cerebellar damage
decomposition of momvement; stance/gait ataxia secondary to ataxia of single limbs; hypotonia; dysarthria; dysmetria; dysdiadochokinesia; action tremor lateral cerebellar damage (left side damage will manifest on left side of body)
expressive aphasia Broca's aphasia- left frontal lobe middle cerebral artery stroke
receptive aphasia Wernicke's aphasia- L temporal lobe middle cerebral artery stroke
motor symptoms in the face, UE and LE Middle cerebral artery occlusion in the internal capsule
loss of pain and sensation throughout posterior cerebral artery occlusion in the thalamus
rigid posture with flexed UE and extended LE and clenched fists during coma Decorticate coma (cortical damage)
rigid posture with extended UE and LE, head, back and neck Decerebrate coma (cerebrum damage-below colliculi but above vestibular nuclei)
total loss of vision in ipsilateral eye optic nerve lesion
loss of vision in temporal halves of both fields (tunnel vision) Optic chiasm lesion (only lesion causing nonhomonymous deficit)
Loss of vision in half of visual field (contralateral hemianopsia) optic tract lesion
loss of vision in upper quadrant of opposite half of visual field optic radiation lesion
Pros of CT imaging rapid, inexpensive, easy to monitor patient during process
Cons of CT imaging brainstem view limited by nearby dense bone
Pros of MRI greater detail and contrast; 3-D; picks up subtle changes; reveals disruption of blood brain barrier
Cons of MRI Claustrophobia; can't image ppl on life support; can't immage ppl with ferrous implants or debris in eye; can't image pregnant women
Created by: aglade