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science chapter 4

elements and periodic table

atom the smallest particle of an element
electrons a negatively charged particle found outside of the nucleus of an atom
nucleus central core of an atom :)
protons a positively charged particle that is part of an atom's nucleus
energy level the fixed amount of energy that a system described by quantum mechanics, such as a molecule, atom, electron, or nucleus, can have.
neutron a subatomic particle of about the same mass as a proton but without an electric charge
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element
isotopes each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
atomic mass the mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units
periodic table a table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number
periods a horizontal row of the periodic table
groups a vertical column in the Periodic Table
chemical symbol a notation of one or two letters representing a chemical element
plasma an ionized gas consisting of positive ions and free electrons in proportions
nuclear fusion atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy
metal a solid material that is typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity
malleable able to be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape without breaking or cracking.
ductile able to be drawn out into a thin wire.
conductivity the degree to which a specified material conducts electricity
reactivity the state or power of being reactive or the degree to which a thing is reactive
corrosion the process of corroding metal, stone, or other materials
alkali metal any of the elements lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium, occupying Group
alkaline earth metals the chemical element of atomic number 56, a soft white reactive metal of the alkaline earth group.
transition metals any of the set of metallic elements occupying a central block
particle accelerators an apparatus for accelerating subatomic particles to high velocities by means of electric or electromagnetic fields
nonmetals an element or substance that is not a metal.
diatomic molecule molecules composed of only two atoms
halogens any of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine
noble gases any of the gaseous elements helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon, occupying
metalloids an element whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and solid nonmetals or semiconductors.
semiconductors a solid substance that has a conductivity between that of an insulator and that of most metals
radioactive decay the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy
radioactivity the emission of ionizing radiation or particles caused by the spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
alpha particle a helium nucleus emitted by some radioactive substances
beta particle a fast-moving electron emitted by radioactive decay of substances
gamma radiation gamma rays.
tracers a radioactive element or compound added to material to monitor the material's distribution as it progresses through a system
Created by: 088103