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Vestibular System

Vestibular System- WUPT

4 major functions of the vestibular system Provides: 1.sense of balance 2.information about body position 3.rapid compensatory movements 4.postural reflexes & eye movements
the two otolith organs utricle and saccule
hold receptors for linear accelerations otholith organs (utricle and saccule)
holds receptors for rotational accelerations semi-circular canals
the ______ labyrinth is filled with endolymph and the ______ labyrinth is filled with perilymph membranous and osseus
endolymph is high in ____ and low in ____; while perilymph is high in ___ and low in ___ K; Na; Na; K
the location of hair cells in the otolith organs macula
location of hair cells in the semicircular canals ampullae
tallest stereocilium in hair cell kinocilium
movment of the stereocilia towards the kinocilium opens ______ mechanically gated K channels which cause depolarization and NT release
movment of the stereocilia away from the kinocilium closes the channels and the cell is hyperpolarized
in a given semicircular canal hair cells in ampulla are polarized in the _____ direction same
in the otolith organs the _____ divides the hair cells into 2 populations with ____ polarities striola; opposing
the hair cells in the sacculus are pointed in a ________ orientation, _____ the striola verticle; away from
the hair cells in the utricle are pointed in a _____ orientation, ______ the striola horizontal; towards
the right anterior semicircular canal works in conjunction with the _______ left posterior canal
the right posterior canal works in conjunction with the _____ left anterior canal
the right horizontal canal works in conjunction with the _____ left horizontal canal
Overall there are ___ degrees of freedom in the vestibular system 6; 3 translational and 3 rotational
within the macula of the otolith organs there is gelatinous layer overlying the hair cells and above this is the ___________ membrane wich is embedded with Ca carbonate crystals called ______ otolithic; otoconia
the saccule macula respond to ______, _____ and _____ , ____ movements up, down and foward, back
the utricle macula respond to _______ and _________ head tilts and rapid lateral displacements
at rest there is a _____ firing rate of the vestibular nerve constant
the cupula of the ampula is similar to the _____ of the otolith organs otolith membrane
if the head is turned left the hair cells in the left horizontal canal will be ________ and the hair cells of the right horizontal canal will be ____ depolarized; hyperpolarized
when the head is at rest the VIII nerves on both sides of the head fire APs at the ____ rate same
the function of the _____ is to stabilize your eyes (and gaze) when your head moves vestibular-ocular reflext
_____ is much slower than vestibular processing for image stabilization visual processing
fast movement that resets the eyes saccade (named for direction of fast snap)
right semicircular canal damage will cause a _____ beating nystagmus left
in caloric testing a normal response to cold water is ______ and the normal respose to warm water is _____ saccade to the opposite side; saccade to the same side
loss of the VOR causes problems with fixation on visual targets while head is moving oscillopsia
if you have unilateral damage you ____ recover the ability to fixate; however if you have bilateral damage you _____ can; cannot (the world will alway seem to be moving)
the cell bodies of VIII are located in scarpa's ganglion
the medial vestibulospinal pathway controls ____ postural reflexes head
the lateral vestiublospinal pathway controls ____ postural reflexes axial and limb (forelimb extension and hindlimb flexion)
rigid extension of the limbs caused by transection of the brainstem above the level of the vestibular nucleus is called ______ decerebrate rigidity
the vestibular axons project to the _____ of the thalamus and then to areas ___ and ___ of the somatosensory cortex VPL; 3 &5
In the sensory organization test patients with a vestibular disorder will do very poorly when _______ both visual and proprioceptive signals are taken away
Created by: aglade