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Auditory System WUPT

Sound travels in waves that consists of alternating ______ and ______ condensation and rarefactions
______ determines pitch frequency
_____ determines perceived loudness amplitude
after entering the ear canal, sound will be transmitted via vibration of the tympanic membrane on the ossicles which in turn vibrate against the oval window
the ossicles of the ear malleus, incus, stapes
the middle ear is filled with _____ air
the inner ear is filled with _____ fluid (perilymph and endolymph)
perilymph is found in the ______ and ______ scala vestibuli and scala tympani
endolymph is found in the _____ scala media
hair cells are the receptor cells of the ______ which is found in the _____ organi of corti; scala media
three compartments of the cochlea scala vestibuli, scala media, scala tympani
pressure waves caused by vibration of the ossicles against the oval window cause ossilation of the ____________ basilar membrane of the scala media
the basilar membrane of the organ of corti consists of _____ rows of hair cells, ____ outer and ___ inner 4; 3 outer(important for sound amplification); 1 inner (important for sound detection)
the apical surface of each hair cell contains a bundle of _________ stereocilia
basilar membrane movements cause ________ the sterocilia to bend
the longest sterocilium is called the ________ kinocilium
if the vibrations of the basilar membrane cause a hair cell's sterocilia to bend towards teh kinocilium it will release ______ neurotransmitter more
if the vibrations of the basilar membrane cause a hair cell's sterocilia to bend away from the kinocilium it will release ______ neurotransmitter less
the potassium channels on the hair cells are ______ mechanically gated
the hair cells at the base of the basilar membrane are ___ and ____ most sensitive to _____ frequencies short and stiff; high
the hair cells at the apex of the basilar membrane are ____ and ____ and are most sensitive to _____ frequencies long and flexible; low
the afferents that come from the hair cells synapse upon the ______ ganglion spiral
spiral ganglion axons project to the ____ nucleus cochlear (has a tonotopic arrangement)
3 options for asceding connections from the cochlear nuclei dorsal acoustaic stria, intermediate acoustic stria, trapezoid body
pathway by which superior olives get bilateral info trapezoid body
first place in the brain where bilateral auditory information is received superior olive
after the superior olive the trapezoid body tract joins with the dorsal and intermediate stria to form the ________ which then travels to the ________ lateral lamniscus; inferior colliculus
the axons that originate in the inferior colliculus synapse in the ______ medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
the axons of the mgn of the thalamus ascend to the ____ primary auditory cortex
A1 has a ____ map tonotopic
2 ways brain localizes sound 1. interaural time differences; 2. interaural intensity differences
connection between ears and back of the throat eustachian tube
a person with ______ will be able to hear a tuning fork if you press it against the temporal bone behind the ear conduction deafness (problem with ossicles of the middle ear)
a person with ______ deafness has damage to the cochlea (inner ear) sensorineural
how a cochlear implant works by stimulating the VIII nerve directly, bypassing the structures in the inner ear
Created by: aglade