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Chapter 8

Skin Physiology, Chapter 8, Pivot Point Esthetics

TermDefinition
Skin Largest organ of the body, other than the brain it is the most complex.
Skin Physiology Study of the skins functions.
Skin Histology Microscopic study of the skin's tissue.
Integumentary system This system consists of the skin and its layers.
Dermatology Study of the skin, its structure, functions and diseases.
Organs Made up of two or more types of tissue connected together.
Functions of the skin Protection, Absorption, Secretion, Sensation, Excretion, Regulation (PASSER).
Pores Tiny openings in the skin that allow sweat or sebum (oil) to pass through the surface of the skin.
Protection The bodies first line of defense, for example it acts as a barrier to infection, extreme heat and cold. This is the skins function of _____________.
Absorption The process through which water, oxygen, vitamins and acids pass through the surface of the skin.
Secretion The release of sebum and sweat by the skin.
Sebum (oil) Complex mixture of fatty substances that keeps the skin soft, supple and pliable.
Acid Mantle Protective barrier of lipids and secretions on the surface of the skin.
Skin's PH 4.5 - 5.5
Excretion Process through which toxins and waste material, such as carbon dioxide, are released through pores.
Regulation Function through which the skin maintains internal body temperature by shivering, goosebumps, and sweat.
98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees Celsius) Normal body temperature.
Sensation Nerve end fibers transport stimuli sent from the brain and spinal cord allowing humans to detect sensations such as heat, cold, pain pressure and touch. This is the skin function called ____________.
Keratin Primary component of skin cells. Contains several chemical elements such s carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. Found in two forms, Hard and Soft.
3 main layers of skin Epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous.
Epidermis (epidermal layer) Outermost layer of skin. Primarily composed of keratinocytes and epithelial cells.
Dermis (dermal layer) Underlying or inner, second layer of the skin (also called derma, corium, cutis or true skin).
Subcutaneous layer (subcutis or subdermis) Located below the dermis and is composed primarily of adipose (fatty) tissue.
Keratinocytes Epidermal cells that consists of keratin.
Epithelial cells Skin cells which cover and protect the body.
5 layers of the epidermis stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum (basale).
Stratum Corneum Toughest layer of the epidermis, Cornified or horny cells.
Keratinization Chemical conversion of living cells into dead protein cells.
Desmosomes Intercellular connections that tightly interconnect keratinocytes.
Squamous cells Cells found in the stratum corneum and protect the layers below.
Stratum Lucidum Clear, transparent layer of the epidermis under the stratum corneum. Thickest on the hands and soles of the feet.
Epidermal ridges or whorls Provide palms and soles with traction. In the tips of your fingers they are your finger prints.
Stratum Granulosum 3rd layer of the epidermis, Cells are more regular shaped and resemble many tiny granules. These granules are the dying cells making their way to the surface to replace cells that are shed from the stratum corneum.
Organells Tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within the cell.
Stratum Spinosum Called the spiny layer because the desmosomes (intercellular connections) appear as spines between the cells.
Langerhans cells Found in Stratum Spinosum and help protect the body from antigens. Identifies the foreign substance so the T-cells can destroy it.
Antigens Foreign material that invades the body such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and toxic materials.
T-Cells (Immune cells) Recognize the antigens displayed on the Langerhans cell to assist in destroying them.
Stratum Germinativum (stratum basale) Deepest layer of epidermis and consists of many large stem cells that divide (called mitosis) to form new keratinocytes that move into the more superficial layers of the epidermis.
Mitosis Division of cells.
25-30 days Typical amount of time for cell replacement from the stratum germinativum through all layers to the stratum corneum.
Hemidesmosomes Attach the epidermis to the dermis. Found in the stratum germinativum.
Merkel cells Touch receptors, only found in the stratum germinativum.
Melanocytes Produce melanin and gives skin its color. Not found in thick skin such as the palms of your hands and the soles of your feet.
Fibroblast cells Responsible for the formation of fibers and aid in the production of collagen and elastin.
Collagen Strong protein substance, when broken down forms bundles that strengthen and gives structure to the skin. Makes up about 70% of the dermis.
Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars Thick raised scars characterized by a thickening of collagen.
Elastin Fibrous protein that is the basis of elastic tissue. Contributes to the skins stretch and elasticity, helps prevent "sagging".
Mast Cells Located in the dermis and respond to allergies by releasing small granules called histamines.
Meissner's corpuscles Light pressure and cold receptors.
Ruffini's Corpuscles Long-term pressure and heat receptors.
Pacinian corpuscles Deep pressure and pain receptors.
Krause's End Bulbs Pressure and pain receptors.
Sudoriferous glands Sweat glands.
Sweat Mixture of water, urea, electrolytes and lactic acid.
Apocrine glands Located under the arms, in the genitals and the nipples.
Eccrine glands Located throughout the entire body. Primarily responsible for thermoregulation. Most abundant on the forehead, palms and soles. Open directly onto the skins surface. Glands that are of major concern for the skin care professional.
Endocrine glands Ductless glands that empty their hormonal products directly into the blood.
Exocrine glands Glands that releases its secretions through tube-like structures called ducts onto the surface of the skin.
Sebacceous glands Oil glands in the skin.
Sebum Complex mixture of fatty acids (Oil).
Androgen Male sex hormone present in both men and women. Influences amount of sebum produced by sebaceous glands.
Subcutaneous layer (subcutis, subdermis) Located beneath the dermis and is composed primarily of adipose (fatty) tissue.
Thermoregulation Process of maintaining an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
5 types of tissue found in the skin Epithelial, connective, muscular, nerve, liquid.
Epithelial tissue Tissue found in the epidermis.
Connective tissue Tissue found in the dermis.
Muscular tissue Tissue found in the muscles.
Nerve tissue Tissue found in the nerves.
Liquid tissue Tissue found in the blood and lymph.
Examples of connective tissue Collagen, elastin, ligaments, tendons, cartilage.
Ligaments Connect bone to bone.
Tendons Connect muscle to bone.
Cartilage Lines parts of the bones that would otherwise rub against each other in the joints.
Lymphocytes Carry lymph.
Tactile receptors Report fine touch, pressure, and vibrations.
Factors that can affect the average rate of cell turnover Age, sun exposure, exfoliating agents, treatments and skin conditions.
Exfoliation Removal of deal skin cells, promotes new cell growth.
Types of exfoliation Mechanical/Manual and Chemical.
Mechanical/Manual Exfoliation Physical process of removing dead skin cells with an abrasive product, such as a scrub.
Chemical Exfoliation Exfoliation Process of using natural substances such as enzymes or alpha hydroxy acids in conjunction with other ingredients to cause a chemical reaction to remove dead skin cells.
Transdermal penetration Process of absorption into the skin.
4 primary ways products are absorbed into the skin Pores, Hair follicles, Intercellular cement, Glands (sebaceous and sudoriferous).
Intercellular cement Substance that binds, adds structural strength, and mediates biochemical interactions between cells.
Macule Flat, colored spot on the skin, such as a freckle
Wheal (weel) Small, round, swollen area on the skin; typically seen in allergic skin reactions such as hives.
Papule Small, solid, raised lesion on surface of the skin that does not contain pus.
Pustule Inflamed, raised spot on the skin containing pus.
Vesicle Fluid filled elevation in the skin, also called a blister or bulla.
Nodule/Tumor Solid mass in the skin. May be soft or hard as well as fixed or freely moving.
Cyst Abnormal membranous sac containing a gaseous, liquid or semi-solid substance
Crust Dried mass that is the remains of an oozing sore.
Excoriation A mechanical abrasion of the epidermis.
Scale Shedding of dead skin cells of the uppermost layer of the epidermis. May be dry (psoriasis) or oily (dandruff).
Scar A mark on the skin that is left after a cut or other wound has healed.
Fissure Crack or line in the skin. May be dry or moist.
Ulcer Open lesion visible on the surface of the skin that may result in the loss of portions of the dermis and may be accompanied by pus.
Atopic dermatitis Hereditary rash or an inflammation of the skin characterized by dry, sensitive, irritated skin.
Contact dermatitis Rash caused by skin contact with foreign substances.
Seborrheic dermatitis Skin rash characterized by scaly patches and red skin. Usually concentrated on the scalp but can affect other areas.
Psoriasis Chronic skin condition producing red lesions covered with silvery scales
Eczema Noninfectious, inflammatory skin disease characterized by redness, blisters, scabs, and itching.
Hives (urticaria) Common name for appearance of wheals during allergic reaction.
Infection Invasion of the body by a pathogenic organism that interferes with the bodies normal stare.
Herpes simplex Contagious virus infection that lies dormant between outbreaks. Causes blister-like clusters typically found on mucus membranes or on skin around the mouth, nose and genital area. Transmitted when infected skin comes into contact with uninfected skin.
Herpes Zoster (Shingles) Painful eruption of vesicles that follows a nerve root on one side of the body.
Impetigo Highly contagious bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture.
Tinea Medical term for ringworm.
Tinea corporis Fungal infection that affects the trunk, legs or arms.Characterized by a pink to red rash and itching.
Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor) A fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin. Often mistaken for vitiligo.
Verruca Viral infection on the top layer of skin caused by the Human Papilloma Virus. Also known as warts.
Candida albicans Common skin infection caused by yeast, which is a type of fungus.
Conjuctivitus Acute and very contagious. Inflammation of the membrane that lines the eye. Also known as Pink Eye.
Asteatosis Dry, scaly skin from sebum deficiency, which can be due to aging, body disorders, alkalies of harsh soaps, or cold exposure.
Seborrhea Excess secretion of the sebaceous glands. Commonly associated with oily skin.
Steatoma Harmless sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor filled with sebum. Also called wens and typically appear on the scalp, neck or back.
Furuncle Also known as a boil. Painful infection of hair follicle and adjacent subcutaneous tissue. Only involves one hair follicle and appears as a firm nodule with with a central, hard, pus filled core.
Carbuncle Cluster of furuncles in the subcutaneous tissue
Rosacea Chronic skin disorder of the face with red inflamed areas appearing mostly on the nose and cheeks.
Rhinophyma Also known as a bulbous nose, usually occurs in older men. overgrowth of tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea.
Acne A chronic inflammatory skin disorder of the sebaceous glands caused by many different factors. Occurs when hair follicles become clogged by sebum, dead skin cells and bacteria called propionibacterium (P. acnes bacteria).
Some causes of acne Hormonal changes, Genetics, stress, medications, environment, excess Androgen.
Types of Acne Blackhead (open comedo), Whitehead (closed comedo), Papule, Pustule, Milia, Nodular cystic
Blackhead Open comedo - An open follicle with a black surface plug, which has been oxidized and discolored due to the sebums contact with the air.
Whitehead Closed comedo - Plugged sebaceous gland with an opening that is not widely dilated.
Milia Pearly white enclosed cyst; often referred to as "baby acne"
Nodular cystic acne Characterized by inflammatory hard lesions found deeper in the skin at the point where the hair follicle becomes plugged with dead skin cells.
Benzoyl peroxide Ingredient used to dry, exfoliate and help in killing bacteria.
Topical antibiotics Medications prescribed by a physician to dry the skin and kill the bacteria that cause acne.
Retin-A Contains Tretinoin, a powerful derivative of vitamin a that dries the skin and promotes rapid exfoliation.
Azaleic acid An acid that promotes drying and cell turnover.
Salicylic acid A beta hydroxy acid that mildly dries and promotes cell turnover by producing a mild keratolytic action.
Glycolic acid Alpha hydroxy acid that breaks the bonds that connect skin cells together allowing for cell turnover & exfoliation.
Bromidrosis Sometimes called OSMIDROSIS; a foul smelling perspiration caused by the yeast and bacteria that break down the sweat on the surface of the skin.
Anhidrosis A lack of perspiration caused by a failure of the sweat glands.
Hyperhidrosis Over production of perspiration caused by excessive heat or general body weakness.
Miliaria rubra Acute burning, itching rash caused by excessive heat. A disorder of the sudoriferous glands also known as prickly heat.
Benign growths or moles Have a regular shape, are skin-colored or brown, can be flat or raised and are symmetrical.
Skin tags Small elevated growths that can easily be removed by a physician. Often found where skins rubs together or against clothing.
Pre-malignant growths Similar in appearance to both benign and malignant growths; can be flat or raised; border is notched and color is irregular; tend to be asymmetrical and more than 6mm in size.
Malignant growths Cancerous growth; they must be diagnosed by a physician and treated immediately.
Basal cell carcinomas Common malignant lesions appear translucent with irregulat borders, or light, pearly nodules, and tiny blood vessels. Can be easily removed.
Squamous cell carcinoma Irregular, crusted, red papule that occurs in sun-exposed areas and my be an actinic keratosis that went untreated.
Actinic keratosis Pre-malignant growth that is irregular shaped, scaly, red-pink, feel rough to the touch and appear on sun-exposed areas.
Melanoma Most dangerous growth. Evolve from flat or raised pigmented lesions. If left untreated they will become malignant.
ABCD's of skin cancer Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter
Albinism A group of inherited conditions that results in the failure of the skin to produce melanin.
Leukoderma Congenital disorder that occurs when the skin lacks pigmentation due to a decrease in melanocyte activity.
Vitiligo Acquired skin disease characterized by white patches that are caused by a lack of pigment in a number of melanin cells.
Nevus Birthmark or congenital mole.
Created by: BBLaird