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|Pelvis forward rotation ( transverse pelvic rotation) occurs in wich phase? And how many degrees?
|during swing phase, aproximately 4 degrees.
|What is the high and low point of the lateral tilt of the pelvis during a gait? And it is controlled by wich muscles?
|at midstance- high pointperiod of double support- low point. Controled by hip abductors.
|What are the phases of gait on STANCE PHASE?
|Heel Strike, Foot flat, Midstance, Heel off and toe off.
|What are the phases of gait on SWING PHASE?
|Acceleration, Midswing and Deceleration.
|Whats is cadence? And what is the average of steps per minute?
|the number of steps taken over a period of time.Avg 110-120 steps per min.
|Common gait deviations: Stance phase.
|Lateral bending- weak gluteus medius
|Bending on the same side of weakness:( Stance Phase)
|Trendelenburg gait.* Patients may experience hip pain.
|Backward lean of the trunk:(Stance Phase)
|Usually caused by a weak gluteus maximus.* Pt will have difficulty goingup stairs or ramps.
|Step lenght is the measured distance between the points of heel contact, of one extremity to the point of heel strike of opposite extremity.
|Excessive hip flexion:(Stance Phase)
|Usually caused by weak hip extensors or tight hip or knee flexors.
|Limited hip extension:(Stance Phase)
|tight or spatic hip flexors
|Limited hip flexion: (Stance Phase)
|caused by: weak hip flexor or tight hip extensors.
|Excessive knee flexion caused by:-SP
|weak quadriceps, pt has difficulty going down stairs or ramp; trunk may compensate by ncreasing forward bending. May hv difficulty with sit to stand.
|Hyperextension of the knee caused by:
|weak quads, pl fl. contracture or extensor spasticity.
|TOE FIRST-heel contact floor at heel strike.
|Result of- weak dorsal f, spatict ot tight plantar flexors, shortened leg lenght,painful heel or a positive support reflex.
|the foot make floor contact with a audible slap; result of weak dorsal f. or hypotonia.
|What are some FOOT SLAP -considerations?
|patient may compensate for this deficit by using a steppage gait (excessive hip and knee flexion)
|What happen on floot flat? What the major cause od if?
|the entire foot contacts the ground at contact.weak dorsiflexors, limited ROM, or immature gait pattern ( neonatal)
|What is a calacaneous gait?
|execessive dorsiflexion with uncontrolled forward motion o the tibia. This is result of WEAK PLANTARFLEXORS.
|What is a EQUINUS GAIT?
|The heel doesnt touch the ground.
|Equinus gait may be caused by what?
|spasticity or contracture of the plantarflexors.
|Supination gait is...
|execessive lateral contact of foot during stance with VARUS position of CALCANEUS.
|What are the possibles causes of supination GAIT?
|Weak spatic invertors, weak evertors, pes varus, genu varum
|Pronation is ....
|excessive medial contact of foot during stance phase, with VALGUS position of CALCANEUS.
|What are possibles causes od pronation GAIT?
|weak invertors, pes planus, genu valgum and spaticity.
|What is Toes Claw?
|the result of spatic toe flexors, possibilty a hyperactice plantar grasp reflex.
|What are the major causes of INADEQUATE PUSH OFF?
|weak plantar flexors, decreased ROM, or pain in the forefoot/toe.
|What are the commmon Gait Deviations Swing phase? ( Trunk and Hip)- 7
|Insufficient foward pelvic rotation (eg. stroke), Insuff. hip and knee flexion, circundation, Hip Hiking, Steppage gait( execessive hip and knee flexion), Abnormal synergistic, Vaulting.
|What are the commmon Gait Deviations Swing phase?( Knee) -2
|Insuff. knee flexion, Excessive knee flexion.
|What are the commmon Gait Deviations Swing phase?(Ankle and foot) -3
|foot drop(equinus), Varus or innevated foot and equinus varus
|What is vaulting in a gait?
|swing leg is able to advance trough the combination of elevation of the pelvis and plantar flexion of the stance limb.