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goniometry

joint actionnormal rangepositionaxisstationary armmoving arm
shoulder flexion 0-180 supine or seated greater tubercle/acromion process/axilla thorax lat epicondyle of humerus or olecranon process
shoulder extension 0-60 prone greater tubercle/acromion process/axilla thorax olecranon process
Shoulder abduction 0-180 supine or seated greater tubercle/armpit thorax olecranon process
shoulder horizontal abduction 0-30 seated 90/90 anterior to acromion humerus lateral epicondyle of humerus
shoulder horizontal adduction 0-120 seated 90/90 anterior to acromion humerus lateral epicondyle of humerus
shoulder internal rotation 0-70 supine 90/90, towel supporting humerus alignment olecranon process perp to floor ulnar styloid process
shoulder external rotation 0-90 supine 90/90, towel supporting humerus alignment olecranon process perp to floor ulnar styloid process
elbow flexion 0-150 supine, towel supporting humerus to allow hyperextension lateral epicondyle of humerus humerus styloid process of radius
elbow extension 0 supine, towel supporting humerus to allow hyperextension lateral epicondyle of humerus humerus styloid process of radius
forearm supination 0-80 holding a pen in fist, arm supported by towel 3rd phalanx perp to floor pen OR line between radial and ulnar styloid processes
forearm pronation 0-80 holding a pen in fist, arm supported by towel 3rd phalanx perp to floor pen OR line between radial and ulnar styloid processes
wrist flexion 0-80 seated, forearm on table and towel, wrist off table ulnar styloid process parallel to ulna 5th metacarpal
wrist extension 0-70 seated, forearm on table and towel, wrist off table ulnar styloid process parallel to ulna 5th metacarpal
radial deviation 0-20 seated, forearm on table and towel, wrist off table capitate (center of wrist) parallel to ulna 3rd metacarpal
ulnar deviation 0-30 seated, forearm on table and towel, wrist off table capitate (center of wrist) parallel to ulna 3rd metacarpal
hip flexion 0-120 supine, allow passive knee flexion greater trochanter midline of pelvis lateral epicondyle or midline of femur
hip extension 0-30 prone; sidelying if prone not possible greater trochanter midline of pelvis lateral epicondyle or midline of femur
hip abduction 0-45 supine ASIS line between ASIS and ASIS anterior midline of femur/patella
hip adduction 0-30 suoine, contralateral LE adducted ASIS line between ASIS and ASIS anterior midline of femur/patella
hip internal rotation 0-45 short sitting, towel under femur for alignment; alternatively prone anterior aspect of patella perp to floor midline of lower leg
hip external rotation 0-45 short sitting, towel under femur for alignment; alternatively prone anterior aspect of patella perp to floor midline of lower leg
knee flexion 0-135 supine lateral epicondyle of femur midline of femur midline of fibula/lateral malleolus
knee extension 0 supine with towel under ankle to allow hyperextension lateral epicondyle of femur midline of femur midline of fibula/lateral malleolus
dorsiflexion 0-20 long-sitting, ankle off table lateral malleolus midline of fibula parallel to 5th metatarsal
plantar flexion 0-50 long-sitting, ankle off table lateral malleolus midline of fibula parallel to 5th metatarsal
inversion 0-35 long-sitting, ankle off table anterior ankle midway between malleoli midline of lower leg midline of 2nd metatarsal
eversion 0-15 long-sitting, ankle off table anterior ankle midway between malleoli midline of lower leg midline of 2nd metatarsal
cervical flexion 0-45 seated external auditory meatus perp to floor base of nose
cervical extension 0-45 seated external auditory meatus perp to floor base of nose
cervical rotation 0-60 seated; prone for inclinometer center of head parallel to floor, anterior/posterior for therapist nose
cervical lateral bending 0-45 standing C7 thoracic vertebrae center of occipital bone
Created by: almsmith