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Human Body - Bones

Bones, Joints and Movements

What is a fibrous joint? Immovable joint, bones are fused.
What is a cartilaginous joint? Slightly moveable joint, joined by cartilage
Synovial Joint Moves freely. Bones are joined by ligaments, joints are designed for maximal movement
Ligaments Join bone to bone. They act like strong rubber bands that prevent dislocation
Joint Capsule Tough, fibrous layer which surrounds the bone ends and helps hold them together
Synovial Membrane The lining on the inner surface of the joint capsule. It secretes a small amount of lubricating fluid.
Synovial Fluid Helps to 'oil' the joint
Hyaline Cartilage Shiny, white substance covering the ends of the bone . It helps to allow for smooth, friction-free movement
What are the 5 types of Synovial Joints Ball and Socket Hinge Joint Saddle Joint Gliding Joint Pivot Joint
What are the 5 characteristics of a Synovial Joint Ligaments Joint Capsule Synovial Membrane Synovial Fluid Hyaline Cartilage
Ball and socket joint The ball of one bone fits into the cup of another bone. This joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and rotation Examples: Hip & shoulder
Hinge Joint The movement is like a door swinging on its hinges. It allows only flexion and extension. Examples: Elbow, knee and inter-phalangeal joints
Saddle Joint Example: joint at the base of the thumb. Capable of all movements but rotation is limited
Gliding Joint The bone surfaces are flat and a gliding movement can occur. Examples: carpal bones of the wrist and tarsals of the ankle
Pivot Joint Allows rotation around a longitudinal axis. Examples: rotating the superior end of the radius in its socket, allowing the hand to rotate
Movements of a Synovial Joint Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction Hyperextension Pronation Supination Inversion Eversion Dorsiflexion Plantarflexion
Flexion Bending or decreasing the angle of a joint
Extension Straightening or increasing the angle of a joint
Abduction The movement of the body part away from the midline
Adduction The movement of the body part towards the midline of the body
Rotation The movement of the body part around a longitudinal axis
Circumduction The combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction
Hyperextension The extension of a body segment to a position beyond its normal extended position
Supination Rotation of the hand and forearm resulting in a 'palm up' position
Pronation Rotation of the hand and forearm resulting in a 'palm down' position
Inversion The rotation of the foot with the sole tuned inward
Eversion The rotation of the foot with the sole turning outward
Dorsiflexion The movement of the top of he foot towards the tibia
Plantarflexion The movement of the top of the foot away from the tibia
5 functions of the skeleton Movement Protection Structure Blood Cell Production Calcium Storage
What are the classifications of bones? Short Long Flat Irregular Sesamoid
Short Bones Carpals, Tarsals
Long Bone Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, phalanges
Flat Bone Cranium, Sternum, Ribs, Scapular
Irregular Bones Vertbrae, Facial Bones
Sesamoid Bone Patellae
Name and number the vertebral column Cervical - 7 Thoracic - 12 Lumbar - 5 Sacrum - 5 fused Coccyx - 4 fused
Created by: 2426219237419596