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the human body

fearfully & wonderfully made module 1

gross anatomy the study of the macroscopic structures of an organism
microscopic anatomy the study of the microscopic structures of an organism
physiology the study of the functions of an organism and its parts
histology the study of tissues
organ a group of tissues specialized for a particular function
tissues groups of cells specialized for a particular function
homeostasis a state of equilibrium in the body with respect to its functions, chemical levels, and tissues
effector a structure in the body that can change the value of a variable
selective permeability the ability to let certain materials in or out while restricting others
endocytosis the process by which large molecules are taken into the cell
If this course taught only the name of each organ and the location, would this be an anatomy course or physiology course? An anatomy course.
What are the seven levels of organization in a living organism? organism, organ systems, organs, tissues, cells, organelles, and molecules.
If you are using a 40x, 100x, 400x, 1000x microscope to study the human body, what levels of organization would you be studying? You could see tissues, cells, and organelles.
What are the four types of tissue? nervous tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.
Identify the types of tissue that makes up the lining of a blood vessel. epithelial tissue
Identify the types of tissue that makes up the trapezius muscle. muscle tissue
Identify the types of tissue that makes up the cartilage in your joints. connective tissue
Identify the types of tissue that makes up the frontal lobe of the brain. nervous tissue
What is the general term for the processes in our environment that threaten homeostasis? Homeostasis is threatened by stress.
If your heart rate would start to go up to a point that's dangerous, and your body would start negative feedback response, would your heart rate go up or down? If it would initiate positive feedback response, would your heat rate go up or down? With negative, it would decrease. A positive feedback system would cause the heart rate to increase.
What are the two organ systems that control the negative feedback systems of the body? The nervous and endocrine systems.
How many nucleotides are in a codon? three.
Suppose the first nucleotide on a codon is adenine. What will the first nucleotide be on the corresponding anticodon? What was the nucleotide that was originally on DNA? Uracil; thymine
List the phases of mitosis in order. prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
In which phases of mitosis do chromosomes have the "X" shape that most people associate with chromosomes? prophase and metaphase.
What property of phospholipids gives the plasma membrane the ability to self-reassemble? The fact that phospholipids have a polar head and a nonpolar tail.
What is the function of a glycoprotein in the plasma membrane? identification.
What is the function of a receptor protein in the plasma membrane? It takes in messages from other cells.
The model of the plasma membrane that we discussed is the fluid mosaic model. What is the "fluid"? What does the "mosaic" refer to? It's the fatty part of the membrane, which is composed of phospholipids. Mosaic refers to the fact that there are several different proteins scattered throughout.
There are essentially four basic ways a substance can get through the plasma membrane. What are they? If you get specific, you will end up listing 6. A substance can dissolve through the phospholipids, it can enter through a channel protein, it can enter using a carrier protein, or it can enter through endocytosis.
How will water get through the cell? channel protein
How will a protein get through the cell? pinocytosis
How will a Mg ion get through the cell? charged channel proteins.
How will a monosaccharide get through the cell? carrier protein
How will an invading bacterium get through the cell? phagocytosis
How will a lipid get through the cell? Dissolve through the phospholipids.
If a protein enters a cell, and the outside of the cells has a higher concentration of that protein than the inside of the cell, is that an active transport process or a passive transport process? passive transport
If a glucose molecule enters a cell, and the concentration of glucose inside the cell is less than the concentration of glucose outside the cell, did the cell expend ATP? No ATP was expended.
Name the main function of the nucleus. Contains DNA.
Name the main function of the plasma membrane. Holds the cell together and controls entry and exit of substances.
Name the main function of the ribosomes. Synthesizes proteins.
Name the main function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Intercellular transport and sythesis of proteins.
Name the main function of the smooth e.r. Intracellular transport and synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids.
Name the main function of the Golgi apparatus. Packages chemicals for secretion.
Name the main function of the secretory vesicle. Secretion
Name the main function of the lysosome. Breaks down proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and lipids.
Name the main function of the mitochondria. Produce energy for the cell.
Name the main function of the cilia. Movement.
Name the main function of the centrioles. Spindle formation for mitosis and meiosis.
Created by: abigaileah