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# AP Stats Random Quiz

Bias Failure of a sampling method to properly represent its population; bias sampling methods tend to under/over estimate population parameters
Census Sample that consists of an entire population
Pilot Small trial run of a survey to check if questions are clear; can reduce errors from ambiguous questions
Population The entire group of interest; samples are drawn from the population
Random/randomization Outcome is random if we know the possible values it can have, but not a particular result; each individual is given a fair chance of selection
Representative Sample is representative if the stats computed from the sample accurately reflect the population parameters
Sample Smaller group of individuals selected from the population
Sample Size Number of individuals in a sample
Sample Survey Survey that asks questions of a sample in the hope of learning something about the population
Sampling Frame A list of individuals from whom the sample is chosen
Sampling Variability (Sampling Error) Natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ
Simulation Models a real-world situation by using random digit outcomes to minimize the uncertainty of the response variable (variable of interest)
Trial Sequence of components in a simulation that produce a simulated answer
Simple Random Sampling (SRS) Each combination of people has equal chance
Stratified Sampling 1. Divide into homogeneous groups (strata) 2. SRS is used to choose some from each strata
Systematic Sampling 1. Pre-determined "ordered" list 2. Start with a randomly selected individual 3. Choose each "nth" person
Cluster Sampling 1. Divide into representative clusters 2. Randomly choose one or more entire clusters
Multi-Stage Sampling Combination of several sampling methods
Voluntary Response Samples Bad Sampling Technique, large group of individuals is invited to respond and all who respond are counted
Convenience Samples Bad Sampling Technique, include only the individuals who are convenient for us to sample
Undercoverage Some portion of the population is not sampled at all or has a smaller representation in the sample than in the population
Voluntary Response Bias When given the option to respond, the responses are often bias towards those with strong opinions or those who are strongly motivated
Non-Response Bias Very few surveys get everyone to respond and those who don't respond may have different opinions than those who do
Response Bias Anything in the survey design that may influence a response
Created by: archergirl

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