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McCrary Unit 12

AP Psychology Motivation and Emotion Unit, 18-19 fall class

motivation a need or desire that energizes or directs behavior
instinct a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species
drive-reduction theory the idea that a physiological need creates an arousal tension state(drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy that need
homeostasis a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect such as body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Yerkes-Dodson law the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, beyond which performance decreases
hierarchy of needs Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger
set point the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lower metabolic rate may act to respite the lost weight
basal metabolic rate the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
sexual response cycle the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period a resting period on which after an orgasm a man cannot immediately achieve another orgasm
sexual dysfunction a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogens sex hormones such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts in females than by males, and contributing to female sex characteristics. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
testosterone the most important of of the male sex organs . Both males and females have it but additional testosterone in males promotes the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
ostracism social exclusion, sometimes used to control human behavior(isolation, imprisonment)
insecure anxious attachment constantly craving acceptance but remaining vigilant to signs of possible rejection
insecure avoidant attachment feeling discomfort over getting close with others that they employ avoidant studying strategies to maintain distance
emotion a response of the whole organism, involving 1)physiological arousal, 2)expressive behaviors, 3) conscious experience
James Large Theory the theory that our experience of emotions is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion arousing stimuli
Cannon Bard theory the theory that our emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers 1) physiological responses and 2) the subjective experience of emotion
two-factor theory the Schacter Singer theory that to experience emotion one must 1) be physically aroused and 2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses(such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes) accompanying emotion
empathy the ability to identify with others and imagine what it must be like to walk in their shoes
health psychology a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
general adaptation syndrome(GAS) Seyle's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three phases: alarm, resistance, exhaustion
tend and befriend under stress, people(especially women) often provide support to others(tend) and bond with and seek support from others(befriend)
psychophysiological illness literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches
psychoneuroimmunology the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together effect the immune system, resulting health
lymphocytes two types of white blood cells part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in bone marrow, release antibodies that fight bacterial infections, T lymphocytes form in thymus, other lymphatic tissue, attack cancer cells, viruses, foreign substances
coronary heart disease the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
Type A Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, aggressive, and anger-prone people
Type B Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
catharsis in psychology, the idea that "releasing"aggressive energy(through action or fantasy) receives aggressive urges
feel-good, do-good phenomenon people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
subjective well-being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life, used along with measures of objective well being(for example, physical, economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life
adaptation-level phenomenon our tendency to form judgements(of sounds, lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experiences
relative deprivation the perception that we are worse off relative to those with whom we compare ourselves
Created by: abyrd6067