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Chapter 16

Nail Physiology, Chapter 16

TermDefinition
Onyx Technical term for the nail.
Onychology Study of the structure and growth of the nails.
Free Edge Part of the nail part that extends beyond the end of the finger or toe and protects the tip of the finger or toe.
Nail Plate (also called nail body) Visible nail area from the nail root to the free edge. It is made up of several transparent layers of hardened cells which do not contain any nerves or blood vessels.
Nail Wall Folds of skin on either side of the nail groove.
Lunula White, half moon shape at the base of the nail. From the Latin word meaning moon, appears white due to reflection of light where nail matrix and nail bed meet.
Eponychium Area that overlaps the matrix at the base of the nail. Also serves as a water tight seal that protects the matrix against infection.
Cuticle Loose and pliable overlapping skin around the nail. This layer of skin that as it sheds attaches to the top layer of the nail plate.
Nail Matrix Active tissue that generates cells, which harden as the move outward from the nail root to the nail plate.
Nail Root Attached to the nail matrix at the base of the nail under the skin and inside the mantle.
Mantle Pocket-like structure that holds the nail root and nail matrix.
Nail Bed Area of the nail on which the nail plate rests. Nerves and blood vessels found here supply nourishment to the entire ail unit.
Nail Folds (also called grooves) Tracks on either side of the nail that the nail moves on as it grows.
Perionychium Skin that touches, overlaps and surrounds the sides of the nail.
Bed Epithelium A thin, sticky layer of the epidermis that attaches the nail plate to the nail bed.
Hyponychium Skin under the free edge, which acts as water tight seal to prevent bacteria from entering the nail bed.
Keratin Hair, skin, and nails are composed of protein called Keratin. Nails are composed of Hard Keratin.
1/8" Average monthly growth rate of nail in Adults. Under normal circumstance a new fingernail takes 4-6 months to grow. Toenails take 10-12 months. Nails grow faster in younger people because cell regeneration happens at a faster rate.
Onychosis Any disease or disorder of the nail.
Etiology Study of the cause of a disease or disorder.
You CANNOT perform nail services If a disease is present.
You CAN perform nail services with care If a disorder is present.
Signs of infection Pain, swelling, redness, local fever, throbbing, and pus.
Onychomychosis (tinea unguium/unguis) Ringworm of the nail.
Paronychia (Felon) Inflammation of the skin around the nail.
Onychia Inflammation of the nail matrix.
Onychoptosis Shedding or falling off of the nail (hint to remember...this word contain the word chop and when you chop wood there is some shedding where the axe chops).
Onychomadesis Loss of nail plate with separation occurring at the nail matrix.
Onychatrophia Atrophy or wasting away of the nail (hint to remember...this word contains chat and when you are hanging out chatting about noting you are wasting away your time).
Onycholysis Loosening or separation of the nail (hint to remember ly=lift=loosen or separate - lift from nail)
Blue Nails Nails appear bluish in color.
Eggshell Nails Very thin, soft nails that sometimes curve over the free edge.
Corrugations Horizontal wavy ridges across the nail (hint to remember....cardboard is corrugated and had wavy ridges).
Koilonychia (spoon nails) Nails that have a concave shape.
Furrows Indented vertical lines down the nail plate.
Pterygium Living skin that become attached to the nail plate, either at the eponychium or at the hyponychium (hint to remember...I'm perturbed that I have to go to the gym to get rid of this excess).
Onychogryptosis (claw nails) Increased curvature of the nails (hint to remember....nails are curved as in an animals claws which helps them grip (gryp)).
Onychocryptosis Ingrown nail (hint to remember...this contains the word cry - I'm going to cry from the pain of this ingrown nail).
Tile-shaped nails Have an exaggerated or deep "C" curve.
Pincer Nails (trumpet nails) Nail plate appears to narrow toward the free edge, corners fold inward at the tip.
Plicatured nail Nails appear to have a 90 degree or greater fold that begins at the matrix and extends the length of the nail plate to the free edge.
Onychauxis (hypertrophy) Thickening of nail plate or an abnormal outgrowth of the nail.
Agnails (hangnails) Split cuticles; loose skin partially separated from the cuticle.
Bruised nails Dark purplish discoloration underneath the nail.
Onychophagy Bitten nails (hint to remember...this word contains hag and many a hag has bitten nails).
Onychohorrhexis Split or brittle nails.
Leuconychia White spots appearing in the nail (hint to remember....leukemia causes a high number of white blood cells leuk,leuc both make me think of white).
Melanonychia Tan, brown or black stripe down length of nail.
Created by: BBLaird