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astronomy unit vocab

define and give examples of the words

TermDefinition
Astronomy The study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space
Big bang theory Cosmological model that explains the sudden development of the universe through expansion from a hot, dense state
Doppler shift The shift in frequency based on the radiation given from an object depending if its moving towards or away from the observer
Red shift A shift in the spectra of distant galaxies toward longer wavelengths caused by an object moving away from the Earth
Blue Shift The displacement of the spectrum to shorter wavelengths in the light coming from distant celestial objects moving toward the observer
Frequency The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
Wavelength Horizontal distance between the crests or between the lowest points of two adjacent waves
Absolute brightness (magnitude) The brightness a star would have if it were at a standard distance from earth
Apparent brightness (magnitude) The brightness of a star as seen from Earth
Cosmic microwave background The now-cooled radiation that was released by the big bang
Universe All of space and everything in it
Galaxy A huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust, and gas bound together by gravity
Solar system When the sun is in the middle and all the planets and celestial bodies revolve around it
Star A ball of hot gas, primarily hydrogen and helium, that undergoes nuclear fusion
Planet A large body in space that orbits a star and does not produce light of its own
Electromagnetic spectrum The complete range of electromagnetic waves placed in order of increasing frequency
AU-Astronomical Unit A unit of length used for distances within the solar system
Solar nebula A large cloud of gas and dust such as the one that formed our solar system
Gas giant A planet that has a deep, massive atmosphere such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, or Neptune
Nuclear fusion The process by which two or more small nuclei fuse to make a bigger nucleus
Convective zone The transferring of energy from the stars core and it visible light from the surface
Photosphere Luminous visible surface of the sun
Chromosphere Gaseous envelope that surrounds the sun outside of its photo sphere where gases erupt
Corona The outer part of the suns layer
Sunspot Dark patch that appears periodically on the suface of the sun
Prominence A loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions
Solar Flare A sudden eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface
Coronal mass ejection a large explosion of matter and energy from the Sun
Light year The distance light travels in one year
Parallax The apparent displacement of an observed object that depends in the position of the observer
Main sequence The location on the H-R diagram where most stars lie
HR Diagram Classifies stars by temperature and absolute brightness
Nebular A large cloud of dust and gas in space
Red giant A star that expands and cools once it runs out of hydrogen fuel
White dwarf A small, hot, dim star that is the leftover center of an old star
Nova A star that increases thousands of times in brightness and then fades
Neutron star A star that has collapsed under its own gravity
Pulsar A rapidly spinning neutron star that produces radio waves
Black hole A region of space having a gravitational field so intense that no matter or radiation can escape
Constellations A group of stars that form a pattern
Cosmology The study of the universes general structure and evolution
Created by: rojasn1