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NE 490 Exam #2

Where is necrosis found in the tumor during hypoxic cell death? In the center
Place the cell phases from most radiosensitive to least radiosensitive M>G2>G1>Early S>Late S
Which cell oxygen condition results in greatest cell KILLING? Aerated (oxygen KILLS cells)
What is the Do in a single-target, single-hit model? Dose required to kill population down to 37%
How can you synchronize the cell cycles? Mitotic Shakeoff (round up and de attach from the monolayer) Hydroxyura (kills cells in S phase, stops after G1) Single large dose
How does fractionation help with cell repair? Giving time between doses give cells more time to repair and produce, only true for low LET (gammas), not true for neutrons
What is more damaging, 1 Gy of protons or 1 Gy of gammas? protons (HIGH LET)
What is the radiation damage associated with the shoulder of cell survival curves? Sublethal damage
What does a high shoulder mean? What would the n value be? High shoulder means more radio resistant cells (bacteria), more time to repair in between doses, n would be high (3-5 range)
The quadratic portion of linear-quad model is physically explained by chromosomal aberrations being result of separate breaks from two different particles TRUE
When is OER absent? For high LET particles, such as alphas and protons
What are the three genes that are associated with carcinogenesis? oncogenes (deal with cell suicide, cell will keep producing), tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes
What cell phase is the most sensitive? Less sensitive? Where is DNA replicated? M, Late S, S
What are checkpoint genes? Genes that monitor cell and check for damage
4 Rs of Radiotherapy? Repair, repopulation, reassortment, reoxygenation
What the symptoms of ARS? 1 Gy- nausea, vomiting, bleeding, infection 5 Gy- same, but for whole population 10 Gy- organ failure 50 Gy-death in a couple days
What would you see in a dose rate graph with high dose rate? No shoulder, steep slope
What would you see in a dose rate graph with low dose rate? More of an shoulder, more time for the cells to repair
What is LD5060? What is it for humans? Dose to kill half of the population in 60 days, around 5 Gy for humans
What is the difference between stochastic and deterministic damage? Stochastic: doesn't have threshold, probability increases with dose, ex: cancer Deterministic: has threshold, severity increases with dose, ex: cataracts
Which is more radiosensitive, bacteria or human cells? Human cells are more radiosensitive than bacteria since human cells has DNA, more susceptible to cell damage
What is the different types of radiation damage for cells? Sublethal: repaired within hours, interact to create lethal Potentially lethal: dose is usually lethal unless there is something that is done to modify the environment Lethal: cell death
What is hematopoietic syndrome? happens around 2.4-5 Gy, deficiency within white blood cells, lymphocytes and platelets, and immunodeficiency peak at 30 days, continue to 60 days can form infection due to shortage of white blood cells
What can be done to estimate dose after radiation accident? Time from vomiting, number of lymphocytes (lost after dose),look for chromosome aberations
Created by: 1672073429469679