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Psych101: Ch. 9&10

MOTIVATION process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION person performs an action b/c it leads to an outcome thats separate from or external to the person
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION person performs an action b/c the act is fun, challenging, or satisfying in an internal manner
INSTINCTS biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animals
INSTINCT APPROACH approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals
NEED requirement of some material(such as air) that is essential for survival of the organism
DRIVE a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension
DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce the tension and arousal
PRIMARY DRIVES involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst
HOMEOSTASIS tendency of the body to maintain a steady state
ACQUIRED(SECONDARY) DRIVES learned through experience/conditioning(ex:social,$,approval)
NEED FOR ACHIEVMENT (nAch) involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals-not only realistic ones, but challenging ones
NEED FOR AFFILIATION (nAff) need for friendly social interactions and relationships
NEED FOR POWER (nPow) need to have control or influence over others
STIMULUS MOTIVE motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosity
AROUSAL THEORY theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal(best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing/decreasing stimulation
YERKES-DODSON LAW stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too high
SENSATION SEEKERS one who needs more arousal than the average person
INCENTIVES things that attract or lure people into action
INCENTIVE APPROACH theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties
SELF-ACTUALIZATION the point in which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potential
PEAK EXPERIENCES times in a person's life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved
SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY(SDT) the social context of an action has an effort on the type of motivation existing for the action
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION type of motivation in which a person performs an act b/c act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner
INSULIN & GLUCAGON hormones secreted by the pancreas to control levels of fats, proteins and carbs in the bloodstream
LEPTIN hormone signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being full
WEIGHT SET POINT the particular level of weight the body tries to maintain
BASAL METABLOLIC RATE (BMR) rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting
OBESITY body weight of a person is over 20% or more over the ideal body weight for that person's height
EMOTION the "feeling" aspect of the consciousness characterized by certain physical arousal, certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and inner awareness of feelings
COMMON SENSORY THEORY OF EMOTION a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal ex:"I'm shaking b/c i'm afraid"
JAMES-LANGE THEORY OF EMOTION a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion ex:"I'm afraid b/c i'm shaking"
CANNON-BARD THEORY OF EMOTION the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time ex:"I'm shaking and feeling afraid at the same time"
COGNITIVE AROUSAL THEORY OF EMOTIONS both physical arousal and labeling of arousal based on cues from environment must occur before emotions experienced ex:"This snarling dog is dangerous and that makes me feel afraid"
FACIAL FEEDBACK THEORY Facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotions being expressed, in turn causes and intensifies the emotion ex: "Scary dog causes arousal and a facial expression into emotion"
COGNITIVE-MEDITATIONAL THEORY a stimulus must be interpreted(appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction ex: "The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous"
PRIMARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS Structures that are present at birth
VAGINA tube leads from the outside of a female's body to the opening of the womb
UTERUS womb in which baby grows during pregnancy
OVARIES the female sexual glands
PENIS male sex organ
TESTES(TESTICLES) male sex glands
SCROTUM external sack that holds the testes
PROSTATE GLAND gland that secretes most of the fluid holding the male sex cells or sperms
SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS sexual organs and traits that develop at puberty and are indirectly involved in human reproduction
MENARCHE CYCLE monthly shedding shedding of the blood and tissue that line the uterus in preparation for pregnancy when conception doesn't occur
MAMMARY GLAND glands within the breast tissue that produce milk when a woman gives birth
ESTROGEN female sex hormones
ANDROGEN male sex hormones
GENDER ROLES culture's expectations for masculine or feminine behavior including attitudes, actions, personality traits
GENDER TYPING process of acquiring gender role characteristics
GENDER IDENTITY the individuals sense of being male or female
TRANSGENDERED the sense of gender identity deos not match their external appearance or chromosome
BIOLOGICAL INFLUENCES hormones, chromosomes, evolutionary selection
CULTURE individualistic societies with high standards of livings are more accepting of nontraditional gender roles, especially for women
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY gender identity is formed through reinforcement of appropiate gender behavior as well as imitation of gender roles
GENDER SCHEMA THEORY a child develops a mental pattern, or schema, for being male or female and then organizes observed and learned behavior around that schema
STEREOTYPE a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on superficial, irrevelant characteristics
GENDER STEREOTYPE a concept held about a person or group of people that is based on being male or female
SEXISM prejudice against males and/or females that leads to unequal treatment
BENEVOLENT SEXISM acceptance of positive stereotypes of males and females that leads to unequal treatment
EXCITEMENT beginning of sexual arousal
PLATEAU physical changes beginning in first continue
ORGASM a series of rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the vaginal walls or penis; 3rd and shortest phase of sexual response
MEN ORGASM semen released penis
WOMEN ORGASM involved muscles of vaginal walls and can happen multiple times, lasting slightly longer than male organism
RESOLUTION the final phase of sexual response, in which body is returned to a normal states
REFRACTORY PERIOD time in which male can't become aroused or achieve erection
MASTER AND JOHNSON STUDY observed and measured physiological
HETEROSEXUAL attracted to the opposite sex
HOMOSEXUAL attracted to the same sex
BISEXUAL attracted to both men and women
SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION problem with sexual functioning, or with physical workings of the sex act in one of threes areas, sexual interest, arousal, response
ORGANIC OR STRESS INDUCED DYSFUNCTION sexual problem caused by physical disorder or psychological stress
Created by: CartersMom