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PSYCHOLOGY

Chapters 7-12

TermDefinition
Sensation Activates sensory organs
Perception Organization of the info and connects to memory and emotions
Transduction Converts sensory info into electrical activity, the visual cortex reads the information
Adaptation Sense adapt to stimulus (nose blindness, for example)
Fovea The point of central focus
Rods Located in fovea, helps to see in the dark
Cones Twenty degrees away from fovea, detailed processing, color, more accurate
Blind spot Where the optic nerve is, unable to see, no rods or cones are there
Retina?? Light falls on retina, photoreceptors are responsible for different processing of information, translate lightwaves into electrical activity, visual imagery
Subtractive color mixing Mixing of pigments and color becomes grayish/black, less wavelengths
Bottom up processing Info is coming in, relaying it to different parts of the brain
Top down processing Adding something to make sense of the sensations, includes knowledge/expectation
Elizabeth Loftus Associated with the "lost in a mall" situation; false memories
Concrete operational?? Elementary school age; conservation is achieved here
Process of sensation Physical stimulus, physiological response, sensory experience
Continuous stimulation Reduces responsiveness of sensory system; lack of stimulation increases responsiveness
Cornea Transparent convex tissue focuses light
Iris Opaque donut shaped structures - creates the color of the eye
Pupil Hole in the iris, adjusts amount of light that comes in
Lens Adjustable to further focus light on retina
Three-primaries law Three different wavelengths of light can be used to match any color the eye can see - if they are mixed in appropriate proportions
Law of complementarity Pairs of wavelengths can be found that when added together create the visual sensation of white
Trichromatic theory Color vision emerges from the combined activity of three different types of receptors, each most sensitive to a different range of wavelengths
Size constancy (depth cues) Ability to perceive an object as the same size when its retinal image size varies as a result of changes in its distance
Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Grouping Max Wertheimer, Kurt Kofka - understood in organized wholes - in terms of perception - "the whole is different from the sum of the parts"
Opponent Process Theory white-black, yellow-blue, red-green
Dividing images Figure and ground
Binocular depth cues Involve comparing the left and right eye images
Monocular depth cues Appear in image in either the left or right eye
Eye convergence Inward turning of the eyes when you look at objects that are close to you
Binocular disparity Slightly different, or disparate, views that the two eyes have of the same object or scene
Motion parallax The changed view one has of a scene or object when one's head moves sideways
Pictorial cues Occlusion; relative image size for familiar objects; linear perspective; texture gradient, etc??
Modal model Three types of memory stores (sensory; working/short-term; and long-term memory)
Sensory memory Momentary trace of sensory input - mostly unconscious
Working/short-term memory Small momentary capacity, the center of conscious thought; processes info from both sensory and long-term memory
Long-term memory Mind's database/library - large storage capacity - passive repository
Attention Controls/limits the movement of info from the sensory store into the working memory
Encoding Controls the movement from working memory to long-term
Retrieval Controls the movement of info from long-term to working memory - we remember/recall
Developmental Psychology Study of changes that occur in people's abilities and dispositions as they grow older
Infants explore by... Looking selectively at novel objects, trying to control environment, using social cues (mimicking, gaze following, social referencing)
Piaget "Building up structures by structuring reality"
Assimilation Process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas
Accommodation Process by which existing schemas expands or change
Developmental Stage: Sensorimotor intelligence birth - 2 years old
DS Preoperational thought language development - 5/6 years old
Concrete operational thought 6 - 11 years old
Formal operational adolescence into adulthood
Limitations of Piaget's theory Overestimation of age differences in ways of thinking, theory is vague about the process of change, underestimates the role of the environment
Innate Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Described by Chomsky (includes universal grammar and mechanisms that guide native-language learning, evidence from children's inventions of grammar where none exists - Cerole languages and Nicaraguan sign language)
How infants learn new words Overextending nouns, overgeneralizing grammatical rules
Morphemes Smallest meaningful symbolic units of languages
Content morphemes Nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc
Grammatical morphemes Articles, conjunctions, prefixes, suffixes, etc
Syntax How words can be combined to make phrases and sentences
Zone of proximal development Difference between what a child can do alone and what he can do in collaboration with a more competent other
Piaget vs Vygotsky Piaget's child = scientist, Vygotsky's child = apprentice
Vygotsky Language as a foundation for cognitive development - also culture as a mediator
Private speech Transition toward verbal thought - out loud private speech becomes inner speech or verbal thought
Love withdrawal Use of disapproval of the child, and not just of the child's specific actions
Induction Use of verbal reasoning in which caregiver induces child to think about harmful consequences of actions, from point of view of person who is hurt
Mary Ainsworth The Strange Situation Assessment (secure, avoidant, anxious)
Factors contributing toward the quality of attachment Parental sensitivity, infant characteristics, caregiver's story, contemporary factors (health, support, work)
Harry Harlow Studied attachment in monkeys
Attachment Refers to the strong emotional bonds that develop between infant and caregiver (protects young and vulnerable, provides a secure base for exploration of the environment)
Created by: eureka_hannah