Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

McCrary Unit 10

Conditioning Unit AP Psychology, 18-19

learning the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
habituation an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
associative learning learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli(in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences(as in operant conditioning)
stimulus any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language
observational language one form of cognitive learning that lets us learn from other's experiences
Ivan Pavlov his earliest 20th century research are classics and explored the phenomenon called classical conditioning
classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link one stimulus and anticipate events
behaviorism the view that psychology is 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists agree with 1 but not 2
neural stimulus(NS) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
unconditioned response(UR) in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response(salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus(US)(such as food in the mouth)
unconditioned stimulus in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response
conditioned stimulus in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus(US) comes to trigger a conditioned response(CR)
conditioned response in classical conditioning , a learned response to a previously neutral(but now conditioned) stimulus(CS)
acquisition in classical conditioning, the initial stage, in which one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neural stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of reinforces response
higher order conditioning procedure where conditioned stimulus in one experience is paired w new stimulus, making second(often weaker) CS. For example, an animal that has learned a tone predicts food might the learn that a light predicts tone and start responding to light alone
extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer enforces
spontaneous recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditional response
generalization the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli to elicit similar responses
discrimination in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened of followed by a reinforcer or diminished of followed by a punisher
law of effect Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
operant chamber in operant conditioning research, a chamber(also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain food or water reinforcer, attached devices to record an animal's rate of bar pressing/key pecking
reinforcement in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
discriminative stimulus in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement(in contrast with related stimulus not associated with reinforcement)
positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by promoting positive reinforcer, a positive reinforcer is any stimulus that when presented after a response stimulates a response
negative reinforcers increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response
primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus, sic as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer, also known as a secondary reinforcer
reinforcement schedule a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced
continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement(intermittent) reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisitions of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement
fixed ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable ratio schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
fixed interval schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable interval schedule in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
positive punishment decreases following behaviors be administering an aversive stimulus
negative punishment technique following behaviors by withdrawing a rewarding stimulus
biofeedback a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state such as blood pressure such as blood pressure or muscle tension
respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus
operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
John Garcia challenged prevailing idea that all associations can be learned equally well, findings on taste aversion
taste aversion when smell and taste of an item from certain bad experiences acts as a CS for nausea
cognitive map a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it
latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there in an incentive to demonstrate it
insight a sudden realization of a problem's solution
intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or to avoid threatened punishment
coping alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
problem focused coping attempting to alleviate stress directly, by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor
emotion focused coping attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
learned helplessness the helplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events
external locus of control the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate
internal locus of control the perception that you control your own fate
self control the ability to control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater long term rewards
observational learning learning by observing others; also called social learning
modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Albert Bandura the psychologist who performed the Bobo Doll experiment
mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring or another's action may enable imitation and empathy
theory of mind a child's ability to enable empathy and ability to infer another's mental state
prosocial behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior
Created by: abyrd6067
Popular Psychology sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards