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Science Unit 2

TermDefinition
Valence Electrons an electron is one of outer shells of an atom that can participate in forming chemical bonds with other atoms
Periodic Table arranges all known elements from left to right by mass.
Properties of Metals solid at room temperature shiny luster malleable good conductors of electricity higher density+melting point metals at bottom left are most reactive
Properties of Non-metals no luster poor conductors lower melting points not malleable less reactive brittle lower density
Metalloids elements on both sides of the zig-zag line have properties of both metals and non-metals
Periods rows 1-7 on left side atomic number increases left to right same number of energy levels chemical properties are not the same.
Groups numbered 1-18 all have the same number of valence electrons Group 1 is most reactive; group 18 is most stable
Reactivity the ability of atoms to combine or separate with other atoms to create new substances.
"Happy" atoms when an atoms has 8 electrons on the outer energy level and/or has a complete set
Covalent Bond a bond formed by atoms sharing electrons.
Polar Covalent Bonds a covalent bond in which the two atoms have different electronegativities causing a separation in charges.
Non-polar Covalent Bonds a covalent bond in which two atoms have identical or very similar electronegativities so the charges are distributed evenly.
Polarity seperation of charges
Chemical Bonds attractions between either atoms or molecules.
Electronegativity the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons; how much you want electrons.
Ionic Bond a bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
Bond length the distance between two nuclei at the point of minimum energy; where attractive and repulsive cancel out
Combustion when oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light
Synthesis when two or more reactants combine to produce a single product.
Decomposition a single compound breaks down into two or more elements or new compounds.
Single replacement when one element replaces with another element in a compound.
double replacement when the cations and antions of two compounds switch places, forming two entirely new different compounds.
Created by: kannon12